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Glossary of Bridge Conventions: N-Z
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Go to Glossary Conventions A-M
 Bidding     Duplicate     General     Play     Jargon     Rubber
 

Also see Systems - 2/1Bridge World Standard, ACOL, Eastern Scientific, Goren, Italian Blue Club, Kaplan-Sheinwold (KS), Moscito, Precision, RomanWalsh, Standard American Yellow Card (SAYC).

Convention Card Editors, Convention Cards, and Convention Charts

N


 

 

Bidding

Nagy Game Try - After opener makes a major suit bid and Responder raises the suit, the Opener (with 6 Losing Trick Count) may use a combination of  both short suit and long suit game try methods to discover possible game fits.  See Nagy Game Try.  Also see Game Try, Short Suit Game Try, Long Suit Game Try, Help Suit Game Try
 

 

Bidding

NAMYATS - NAMYATS was created by Sam Stayman who, after creating the Stayman 2 Club response to partner's Notrump opener, coined the NAMYATS convention using his name in reverse order. An artificial opening bid of 4 Clubs or 4 Diamonds used to signify a strong hand with 7+ card length in Hearts or Spades, respectively.  Conversely, an opening bid of 4 Hearts or 4 Spades shows a weak preemptive hand.  See Details
 

Bidding

Neapolitan - The predecessor to the Blue Team Club convention played by the winning Italian Team (Pietro Forquet, Guglielmo Siniscalco, Massimo D'Alelio and Benito Garozzo) in World Championships.
 

 

Bidding

Negative Double - A takeout-like double by responder, popularized by Alvin Roth and Tobias Stone in 1957 (then called the "Sputnik" which, like the Russian satellite, indicates the bid was "out of the world").  The Negative Double is used over the opponent's overcall of partner's opening bid.  See Details
 

Bidding

Negative Free Bid - The Negative Free Bid (Negative Freebid) provides an opportunity to make a non-forcing call by opener's partner after an opponent overcalls to show competitive values.  See Details
 


Bidding

Negative Slam Double - A double of opponents' slam used to indicate either a willingness to continue bidding or penalize the opponents (various treatments are available, including the negative and positive slam double). See Details
 

 

Bidding

New Minor Forcing - After opener rebids 1 Notrump (or 2 Notrump), New Minor Forcing operates similar to Stayman.  New Minor Forcing allows the 11+ point Responder to explore a game fit by discovering the length of opener's major suit holdings and specific strength.  The bid says nothing about the new minor, the bid is strictly conventional (alertable), both artificial and forcing. See Details
 

 

Bidding

Notrump Opening Bid - While the opener's High Card Point range varies based on partnership agreement (10-12, 11-14, 15-17, 16-18), players agree the opener's distribution typically shows a balanced 4-3-3-3, 4-4-3-2, or 5-3-3-2 hand.  Also, a few creative partnerships play different ranges based on relative bidding seat and vulnerability (Split Notrump, Variable Notrump, Chicken Notrump).  Also see 2 Notrump Opener.
 

Bidding

Notrump Overcalls - Partnership agreements regarding overcalling natural and artificial Notrump bids (direct and balancing seat) and responses. See Convention Card Instructions
 

Bidding

Nonforcing Stayman - The use of 2D after a 1 Notrump opener to show game-going values with a Stayman distribution, where a 2C rebid is usually not forcing beyond one Call. See Example
 

Bidding

Norman 4 Notrump - A legacy 4 Notrump slam convention which asks partner to respond accordingly with the following artificial bid: count each King as one-half control and each Ace as one control. See Details.
 

O


 

 

Bidding

OBAR BIDS - Acronym for Opponent's Bid And Raise - Balance In Direct Seat.  Popularized by Larry Cohen in "To Bid or Not to Bid"; conceptually, when the other side discloses a 2 level trump fit, the other side should consider entering the auction - even bidding without substantive values in direct seat. See Details
 

Play

Odd Even Discard - A discard system which uses the parity (odd/even) and rank of the card signal suit preference.  See Details

Also see Details on signaling and books on Signals
 

Bidding

Offshape Double - A Takeout Double not conforming to normal length expected in unbid suits (3+ cards).  See Convention Card
 

Bidding

Ogust - After Opener's weak 2 preemptive bid, a 2 Notrump Call by responder instructing opener to rebid using a step convention, describing the preemptive hand's suit quality and overall strength.  See Details.

Also see

Convention Card Instructions, Feature, and books on Preempts
 
 

Bidding

1 Club System (Strong/Forcing) - An artificial opening of 1C, showing general strength as opposed to relating to one's holdings in Clubs. Systems using the 1 Club System include: Bangkok Club, Blue Team Club, Canary Club, Carrot Club, French Club, Little Roman, Marmic, Orange Club, Precision, Relay, Roman, Roth Club, Simplified Club, Trefle Squeeze, Vanderbilt, Vienna.  See Precision Systems and Italian Blue Club
 

Bidding

Opening Preempts - A bid at a higher level than necessary to obstruct opponents' bidding by taking up valuable bidding space intended to inhibit the opposition from accurately bidding.  A second benefit of preempts provides the partner lead-directing information and an opportunity to explore distributional game or slam options, or make a sacrifice bid by increasing the level of the preempt.  See Convention Card Instructions, Feature, and books on Preempts
 

Bidding

Optional Double - A double requesting partner to determine if it is more advantageous to compete through further bidding, or passing for penalty (also called a Cooperative Double).  See Doubles
 


Bidding

Other Conventional Calls - As defined by the ACBL Convention Card requirement, common conventions are uniquely identified including: New Minor Forcing, Two Way New Minor Forcing, Fourth Suit Forcing, and Weak Jump Shifts.  See Convention Card Instructions
 

Bidding

Over Opponents' Takeout Double - Partnership agreements when opponent makes a takeout Double over partner's opening bid.  See Convention Card Instructions.
 

Bidding

Overcall - Partnership 1 level overcall agreements including anticipated strength and treatment of Advancer responses. See Convention Card Instructions

Also see Books on Overcalls
 

Bidding

Overcall in Opponents' Major Suit - See Michaels Cuebid, Cuebid, Sandwich Overcall

P


 


Bidding

Pick A Slam - Without a known fit or when opponents' interfere with the auction, a jump bid of 5 Notrump may be used to ask partner to pick the best slam suit.  See Details
 

Bidding

Pottage - A defensive bidding system against opponents 1 Notrump opening bid (often called Hamilton in the Western United States, or Cappelletti in the Eastern United States).  See Details
 

Bidding

PLOB - The acronym for Petty Little Odious Bid, a convention similar to New Minor Forcing, denoting a new minor suit bid by responder after opener rebids 1 Notrump.   See Details
 

Bidding

PODI - A alternative Ace-showing acronym when opponents interfere with a Blackwood-type auction (DEPO remains most popular).  See Details
 


Bidding

Pre Acceptance - Also known as Super Acceptance, typically used in a transfer auction (Jacoby, Minor Suit Stayman, Four Suit Transfer), a bid of other than the expected transfer suit indicates game-invitational values with extra length in transfer suit and a maximum 1 Notrump hand.  See Jacoby Transfer.
 

 

Bidding

Pre-Escape - Especially when playing Weak Notrump or Mini Trump opening bids, Responder is well advised to make a semi-psyche 2C Stayman bid when holding a minimum hand.  This action complicates the auction for the opponents, making them both wonder if their partnership has the balance of power and whether to seek game or initiate a penalty Double.  Of course, Responder Passes any opener bid.  See Details
 

 

Bidding

Precision - A system of bidding created by C.C. Wei based on the Big Club system, utilizing a series of step responses as well as preemptively oriented opening bids in other suits.  The Precision 1 Club responses describe suit length and quality as well as suit controls. See Precision Systems

Also see Precision/Big Club Books
 

Bidding

Precision 2 Diamonds - Similar to the Mini-Roman 2 Diamond opening bid, the Precision 2 Diamond opener shows 11 to 15 points and no 5 card suit (4=4=4=1 or 5=4=4=0). See Precision Systems
 

 

Bidding

Preemptive Bid -  A bid at a higher level than necessary to obstruct opponents' bidding by taking up valuable bidding space intended to inhibit the opposition from accurately bidding.  A second benefit of preempts provides the partner lead-directing information and an opportunity to explore distributional game or slam options, or make a sacrifice bid by increasing the level of the preempt.  See Convention Card Instructions, Feature, and books on Preempts
 

Bidding

Preemptive Overcall - A preemptive bid, often a double or triple jump, made over opponent's 1 level opening bid.
 

Bidding

Preemptive Raise - A preemptive jump bid in partner's suit, usually to the 3 or 4 level to show 4+ trump support and shortness in at least one other suit.
 

Bidding

Preemptive Response - A preemptive jump response in a new suit higher than a normal response or a jump shift, showing a long suit typically 7+ card in length.
 

 


Bidding

Puppet Stayman - Used by responder with at least invitational values to discover whether Opener's Notrump bid may consist of a 5 card major suit; responder's 2N - 3C bid (or 1N - 2C for those who play Puppet on after 1N opener) behaves similar to the Stayman convention, but promising at least a 3 card major suit and at least game invitational values.  Using Puppet Stayman, responder can no longer use treatments like Garbage Stayman to show a bust hand short in Clubs since opener may jump directly to 3N with a good hand lacking major support.  See Details
 

Q


 


Bidding

Quantitative Notrump Slam Bid - A unique invitational bid that asks the partner to evaluate the aggregate strength of their hand.  For instance, in the auction 1N - 4N, the opener is asked to bid slam with a maximum 1 Notrump opening hand or pass with a minimum hand. See Details
 


Bidding

Queen Ask - A bid associated with the Keycard Blackwood auction.  After partner's Keycard ask has disclosed the partnership hold all 5 keys,  the bid of the next cheapest suit asks partner to disclose holding the trump Queen.   See Details
 

R


 


Bidding

Range Stayman (Enquiry Stayman) - After partner overcalls 1 Notrump in the passout seat with 11-16 points, the balancing partner uses the 2C Stayman bid to inquire 1 Notrump overcallers point range and major suit fit.  See Details
 

Bidding

Relay - An information bid not related to player's holding.  After the relay, partner further describes their hand.
 

 

Bidding

Relay Systems - A bidding methodology relying on a series of informational minimal bids that do not necessarily relate to the player's holding.  Relay bids typically provide generalized information about one's strength and distribution.  The Relay System was initially created by Pierre Ghestem in 1950.  Bertrand Romanet followed up with the Alpha, and Pierre Collet Relay System in the 1960's.
 

Bidding

Relays Over Weak 2 Bid - In response to partner or opponent's preemptive weak 2 opening bid, the use of a relay system to further describe the partnership's holdings.  See Details
 

Bidding

Responsive Double - When opponents bid and raise (OBAR) in one suit over partner's interceding overcall, a popular treatment by Advancer is the Responsive Double.  The Responsive Double shows length and values in the unbid suits with values similar to the Negative Double.  See Details

Also see other Doubles and books on Doubles
 

Play

Reverse Count - Also known as Upside Down Count, Reverse Count refers to discarding a low-high to show an even number of cards in a suit or a high-low to indicate an odd count.
 

Bidding

Retransfer - After making an initial transfer such as the Jacoby Transfer, occasionally an opponent makes an intervening Call or partner makes a Call to a denomination other than the responder's specified suit. If appropriate, the player makes a retransfer bid to demand partner accepts the transfer.  See Examples.
 

Bidding

Reverse Drury - An extension to Drury.  While responder's 2 Club bid still shows 10-11 points, opener's rebids are reversed from traditional Drury; using Reverse Drury, rebidding 2 of opener's major suit shows a weak hand (fast denies, slow shows).  Of course, opener can rebid game or make another strong action to show opening values.  Partnership agreements are needed to define opener's 2D rebid, seemingly showing an opening hand but needing further information from passed hand responder.  Reverse Drury is consistent with other "fast arrival" methods ("slow shows, fast denies" values). See Details
 

Bidding

Reverse Swiss - An alternative method for opener to invite game in responder's suit by using a jump shift rebid.
 

 

Bidding

Revolving Discards - A method of signaling partner when first discarding.  One method involves discarding a low card to ask partner to lead a suit below the card in the signaled suit; thus, if the card is the lowest suit, the discard asks partner to "revolve" or wraparound to the highest suit when making a lead.  Another approach is the discard of a low card asks partner for the lower ranking of the other two suits.  See Lavinthal
 

Bidding

RIPO - An acronym Redouble 1 (one), Pass zerO, used to indicate Aces or keycards when an opponent has interfered with a slam-asking sequence as Gerber or Blackwood. ROPI is a more popular treatment than RIPO.  See Details
 

Bidding

Ripstra - Simlar to the Landy convention used, showing 8+ cards in the major suits.  See Details
 

Bidding

RKCB - See Roman Key Card Blackwood Convention.
 

Bidding

Robinson - A defensive response against opponents' Big Club system.  See Details
 

Bidding

Rodwell Game Try -  After responder bids a possible 4 card major and Opener makes a 2 level suit raise, responder makes an artificial next suit rank query to determine opener's trump length and strength.  See Details
 

Bidding

Rolling Blackwood - Also known as Sliding Wood, an alternative approach to the 5 Notrump King-ask, using the cheapest non-trump suit to make the inquiry.  Also see books on Slam and other slam conventions: 1430, Baby Blackwood, Blackwood, Controls, Exclusion Blackwood/Voidwood, Gerber, Grand Slam Force, Jacoby 2 Notrump, Key Card Blackwood, Kickback, Last Train,  NAMYATS, Pick a Slam, Quantitative Notrump Bid, Rolling Blackwood, Serious 3 Notrump, Slam Try - Stayman, Splinters, Opener Jump Shift, Strong Jump Shift, and legacy treatments as Roman Asking Bids, Roman BlackwoodRoman Gerber.  Slam treatments also include interference of an overcall by opponents, as Negative Slam Double, DOPI, DEPO, ROPI.
 

Bidding

Rolling Gerber - An alternative approach to the 5 Club King-ask, using the cheapest non-trump suit to make the inquiry.
 

Bidding

Roman Asking Bids - An Romex and Kaplan-Sheinwold method using an unusual jump shift to cuebid or query partner for controls held.  See Details
 

Bidding

Roman Blackwood - An adaptation of the Blackwood convention using the responses after a 4 Notrump slam try.  See Details
 

Bidding

Roman Discards or Signals - See Odd-Even Discards.
 

Bidding

Roman Gerber - An adaptation of the of the Gerber convention using the responses after a 4 Clubs slam try.  See Details
 


Bidding

Roman Jump Overcall - The method of showing a two-suited hand by making a jump overcall, referring to the suit bid and the next higher suit (excluding the opener's suit). See Details. Also see Michaels Cuebid and Leaping Michaels
 

Bidding

Roman Key Card Blackwood - An adaptation to the Blackwood slam convention, considering the trump King, Queen, and other attributes. See Details
 

Bidding

Roman MUD - An opening lead count system when holding four inconsequential cards, beginning with the second highest card, followed by the top card; with holdings of 7 5 4 2, the order of play would be 5, 7, 4, 2.
 

Bidding

Roman System - A multi-opening Big Club system, created by Walter Avarelli and Giorgio Belladonna.  See Details
 

Bidding

Roman 2 Diamonds - One element of the Roman System, used to show a strong hand with a 4=4=4=1 or 5=4=4=0 distribution.
 

Bidding

Romex System - A 2 Club system created by George Rosenkranz, centered around a Dynamic No Trump opening, showing one of the following:

1.

A balanced hand with 19-20 HCP and 6+ controls

2.

An unbalanced hand with 17+ HCP

 

Bidding

RONF - The acronym Raise Only Non-Forcing, referring to responses of partner's preemptive weak 2 opening bid.  A raise of partner's suit is non-forcing, while all other responder bids including Notrump, are forcing.
 

Bidding
ROPI - An acronym Redouble = 0, Pass = 1, used to indicate Aces or keycards when an opponent has interfered with a slam-asking sequence as Gerber or Blackwood.  See Details
 
Bidding

Rosenkranz Double -  A Double by advancer showing trump support and honors.  See Details.
 

Bidding

Roth Asking Bid - After partner's 3-level preemptive opening, 4C is a slam try.  See Details
 

Bidding

Roth Stone Astro - An adaptation of the Astro defense of opponent's 1 Notrump opener to show a two-suited hand.  See Details
 

Bidding

Roth-Stone System - A 5-card major system, based on the Forcing Notrump, preemptive jump overcalls and responses, and Roth's Negative Double.
 

Bidding

Rubens Advances - In a competitive auction, a method that uses forcing natural overcalls beneath 2 Notrump.  See Details
 

Bidding

Rubinsohl (Transfer Lebensohl) - A responder method utilizing transfers immediately after overcaller's bid, extending the transfer elements of the Lebensohl system (the stronger hand should be declarer).  Unlike Lebensohl, Rubinsohl shows length in the implied suit, except transfers to opponent's suit which shows a 4 card major in the bid suit (Stayman).  Also, most advanced Rubinsohl players find the most profitable treatment of responder's double as a generalized takeout double bid rather than the penalty double found in Lebensohl.  See Details
 

Bidding

Runout - See Escape
 

Play

Rusinow Leads - A method using the lead of the second highest ranking card from touching honors, as opposed the the standard treatment of leading the top of touching honors.  See Details
 

S


 

Bidding

SAB - Acronym for Support Asking Bid (Alpha Cuebid) - See Conventions
 

Bidding

Sandwich NotrumpSandwich Notrump - When one opponent opens, partner Passes, and other opponent bids a second suit, an intervening Notrump call "sandwiched" between the two opponents conventionally show a weak two-suited hand in the remaining suits.  Thus, the Sandwich Notrump functions similar to the Unusual Notrump.  See Details
 

Bidding

Sandwich Overcall - Unlike a cuebid, the Sandwich Overcall refers to a natural suit bid in the fourth seat over opponents' bid suits (opening with a minor suit, raised by a major suit).  See Details
 

Bidding

San Francisco Convention - An seldom used alternative to the Blackwood slam convention based on step responses to 4 Notrump.  See Details
 

Bidding

SAYC - The Standard Amercian Yellow Card, a generic 5 card major system with strong Notrump bidding formulated by the ACBL based on common conventions used in the North America- See Details and ACBL Standard American Yellow Card that is already filled out 

Bidding

Scanian Signals - A blend of Upside Down and Standard discard signals.  The theory behind this approach is that standard carding is inferior when the Dummy shows threatening spot cards, and upside down carding is undesirable when the Dummy's intermediate spots may block the suit when partner subsequently attempts to promote the suit.  Using Scanian Signals, Upside Down carding applies when:

1. Dummy holds a card which can be finessed
2. The signaling partner has either a long suit or the defender a short suit

In other situations, standard carding is used.
 

Bidding

Scientific Bidding - Referring to a bidding style that relies on a more complex style of bidding to quantify their holdings. See Details
 

Bidding

Serious 3 Notrump - After partners find an 8 card fit in a major below the 3 Notrump level, non-trump bids above 3S become forcing and artificial.  See Details
 

Bidding

Shadow Double - See Stolen Bid Double
 

Bidding

Short Diamond - An artificial "catch all" bid used by Strong Club players for opening hands that do not conform to requirements for a strong opening hand or contain a 5 card major.
 

Bidding

Short Suit Game Try - After opener makes a major suit bid and responder raises the suit, the opener (with 6 Losing Trick Count) may use a short suit game try to discover a possible game fits based on opener's singleton or void.  See Details.  Also see Game Try, Help Suit Game Try, Long Suit Game Try, Help Suit Game Try
 

Play

Signals - Partnership defensive agreements including Leads, Attitude, Count, and Suit Preference.  See Details and Convention Card Instructions.
 

Bidding

Simple Overcall - Partnership 1 level overcall agreements including anticipated strength and treatment of advancer responses. See Convention Card Instructions
 

Bidding

Slam Try, Stayman - Initially used in conjunction with follow-up bids after a two way Stayman, where a 2D response promising game going values in over partner's 1 Notrump bid opening bid.  Similiarly, some pairs playing standard Stayman use Responder's 3C or 3D rebid after Stayman shows Slam interest (warning: another approach uses this sequence as a weak signoff bid).   See books on Slam and other slam conventions: 1430, Baby Blackwood, Blackwood, Controls, Exclusion Blackwood - Voidwood, Gerber, Grand Slam Force, Jacoby 2 Notrump, Key Card Blackwood, Kickback, Last Train,  NAMYATS, Pick a Slam, Quantitative Notrump Bid, Rolling Blackwood, Serious 3 Notrump, Slam Try - Stayman, Splinters, Opener Jump Shift, Strong Jump Shift, and legacy treatments as Roman Asking Bids, Roman Blackwood, Roman Gerber.  Slam treatments also include interference of an overcall by opponents, as Negative Slam Double, DOPI, DEPO, ROPI.
 

Bidding

Sliver Bid - An alternative approach to responder's normal game jump with a minimum hand and 4-5 trump.  With 3+ controls (A=2, K=1) and a singleton or void, responder bids 3 Notrump.  Opener may Pass with stoppers, signoff in major game suit, or explore slam with an exceptional hand.
 

Bidding

Slam Conventions - Partnership slam bidding agreements including:  1430, Baby Blackwood, Blackwood, Controls, Exclusion Blackwood - Voidwood, Gerber, Grand Slam Force, Jacoby 2 Notrump, Key Card Blackwood, Kickback, Last Train,  NAMYATS, Pick a Slam, Quantitative Notrump Bid, Rolling Blackwood, Serious 3 Notrump, Slam Try - Stayman, Splinters, Opener Jump Shift, Strong Jump Shift, and legacy treatments as Roman Asking Bids, Roman Blackwood, Roman Gerber.  Slam treatments also include interference of an overcall by opponents, as Negative Slam Double, DOPI, DEPO, ROPI.  Also see books on Slam
 

Bidding

Slow Arrival (Slow Shows, Fast Denies) - A series of small incremental yet forcing bids by opener and responder designed to show extra values.  Slow arrival allows the partners to paint a more complete picture of the features (length and strength) associated with both hands.  Some players incorporate the approach in conventions for consistency, such as Reverse Drury and Lebensohl.  Also see Fast Arrival
 

Bidding

Smith Echo - Used when opponents are playing a Notrump contract, a discard signal indicating attitude of partner's opening lead.  The discard signal is provided by the partner of the leader at the first opportunity, typically after declarer has won the trick.  The play of a low spot card signals a discouragement while a high card provides a positive signal to continue the suit of the opening leader.  See Example
 

Bidding

Smolen Transfer -  An extension to the Stayman and Jacoby Transfer conventions, where responder bids the complementary major to ensure the stronger 1 or 2 Notrump opener plays the hand when the Responder has 6-4 or 5-4 in the majors.  See Example
 

Bidding

Snapdragon Double - After the first three player bids different suits, a Double by advancer (fourth seat) shows 5 cards in unbid suit (usually Spades), useful values, and at least 2 cards in partner's suit.

Also see Books on Doubles
 

Bidding

SOS Redouble -  A Redouble instructing partner to provide immediate help over opponent's penalty Double by bidding a better suit.  See Details

Also see Books on Doubles
 

Bidding

South African Texas - A series of 4 level transfers in response to partner's 1 or 2 Notrump opener.  Responder's 4C and 4D bids inform partner to transfer to 4H and 4S, respectively.
 

Bidding

Special Doubles - Partnership agreements using Doubles, defined by the ACBL requiring notation on the Convention Card including Negative, Responsive, Maximal, Support, Card Showing, Minimum Offshape Takeout, and other Special Doubles.   See Convention Card Instructions

Also see Books on Doubles
 

Bidding

 

Specific Suit Ask - A conventional treatment after the partnership discloses all first round controls and the trump King.  Similar to the CAB convention, Specific Suit Asking bids solicit responder to disclose second and third round controls in a side-suit.  See Details.
 

Bidding

Specific Kings - A popular 5 level Slam method used to determine King holdings.  See Details
 

Bidding

Spiral - Referring to a bidding relay approach where the responder is asked to show features or controls.  A minimum step response denies a control in the trump suit, while the next step shows a top card in the trump suit but denies a control in the second longest suit, etc. The Spiral system is found in the Romex system and certain variations of Blackwood Slam bidding.
 

Play

Splinter Bid - A method of using an unnecessary artificial jump in a side suit, generally to show a 4+ major trump support and a singleton or void in the bid suit. The splinter bidder promises game going values, typically 12+ for responder, 20-21 for opener. See Example and Cuebids
 

Bidding

Split Notrump - Referring to the partnership agreement for players who play a Weak Notrump when Non-Vulnerable and a Strong Notrump when Vulnerable, joking referred to as "Chicken" Notrump. Also called Three quarter Notrump and Variable Notrump.
 

Play

Squeeze Bid (Last Train Cuebid) - A method suggesting mild slam interest (game-plus values) after agreeing on a trump suit.  See Example
 

Bidding

Standard American - The concept of following a uniform system of bidding and leads/discards, with a fair number of cohorts in the United States.  See SAYC Note: while many versions of Standard American are in use, the ACBL Standard American Yellow Card provides a uniform treatment.

Also see Standard American Books
 

Bidding

Standard Attitude - Typically a high-low signal showing a positive attitude, first discarding a higher card and subsequently discarding a lower card encourages continuation of the suit.  See Details and Details on signaling

Also see books on Signals
 

Play

Standard Count -  Typically a high-low signal showing a even number of cards, first discarding a higher card and subsequently discarding a lower card.  See Details and Details on signaling
 

Bidding

Stayman Convention - One of the most popular conventions used by Bridge players, using a 2C response to partner's 1 Notrump or 2 Notrump opening bid to locate a major suit fit.  Responder generally uses the 2C response with invitational or better values.  See Example

Also see Books on Stayman

Bidding

Stolen Bid Double (Shadow Double) - A Double of opponents' bid suit, indicating the Doubler would have bid the suit if not "stolen" by their Right Hand Opponent.  See Details
 

Bidding

Strong Pass - An seemingly unnatural call of a pass to show certain hands with opening values, conversely weak hands show less than opening values (e.g., moderately preemptive values)  Thus, one's partner is required to bid regardless of values, affectionately known as a "fert". One disadvantage of the strong Pass is that the partners must develop peculiar defensive methods, possibly confusing the overall bidding process.
 

Bidding

Strong 2 Bid - An artificial opening bid at the two level of a suit, typically indicating a hand showing more than half the total High Card Points in the deck (20+ HCP).  For details, see Systems
 

Bidding

Suction - A defensive bidding system against opponents 1 Notrump opening bid, primarily showing the suit above the suit bid or the two suits above that (where Clubs are "above" Spades).  See Details
 

Bidding
Suit Asking Bid (SAB) - A control asking structure associated with "Big Club" (Precision) and similar systems.  The convention, typically used in a slam invitational sequences without a trump fit.  See Details
 

Play

Suit Preference (Signal) - A defensive discarding method (pitching) to signal encouragement or discouragement of a suit other than the one played.  Examples of suit preference signals include: Odd-Even, Lavinthal, Standard Attitude, Upside Down Count and Attitude (UDCA), Smith Echo, Trump Suit Preference, and Obvious Suit Preference signals.  Also see Details and books on Signals
 

Bidding

Super Acceptance -  Typically used in a transfer auction (Jacoby or Minor Suit Stayman), a bid of other than the expected transfer suit indicates game-invitational values with extra length in transfer suit and a maximum 1 Notrump hand.  See Jacoby Transfer
 

Bidding

Super Gerber (High Gerber) - In response to partner's Notrump bid, a double-raise (jump) in Clubs above 3 Notrump asks partner to show Aces held.  See Details.  Also see Gerber
 

Bidding

Super Precision - An adaptation of the Precision "Big Club" system originally developed by Benito Garozzo and Georgio Belladonna of the Italian Blue Team.  The Italian team enjoyed many victories in international team events.  One of the distinguishing characteristics of their Super Precision system was the use of 1D to describe various hand shapes (other than typical balanced hands or 5 card majors).  See Italian Blue Club
 

Bidding

Support Double - The use of a Double to show 3 or 4 card support for responder's major suit.   See Details

Also see Books on Doubles
 

Bidding

Support Redouble - The use of a Redouble to show 3 or 4 card support for responder's major suit.  See Details
 

Bidding

Systems - The high-level collection of partnership bidding agreements, such as: 2/1Bridge World Standard, ACOL, Eastern Scientific, Goren, Italian Blue Club, Kaplan-Sheinwold (KS), Moscito, Precision, RomanWalsh, Standard American Yellow Card (SAYC).
 

Bidding

System Fix - A situation where the players derive a bad result not through judgment errors, but due to the design of system agreements.
 

Bidding

System "On-off" - Special circumstances which determine whether the partnership agreements should still be in place (systems on) or not (systems off).  The circumstances include: opponent suit bids, opponent doubles, opponent Notrump bids, and bidding after partner is a passed hand.
 

T


 

Bidding

TAB (Trump Asking Bid) - the acronym associated with "Big Club" (Precision) and similar systems.  The convention, typically used in a game forcing auction with an agreed trump suit below game, queries partner for the attributes of their trump suit.  See Details
 

Bidding

Takeout Double - A double demanding partner to make a call in a new strain, made as a competitive bid to either win the auction or make it more difficult for opponents to make a higher level contract.  See Details
 

Play

10 Implies - An element of an opening lead convention "Jack denies, Ten implies."   Thus, the lead of a Jack denies holding a higher ranking honor.  See Details
 

Bidding

Texas Transfer - An extension to the Jacoby Transfer convention, enabling the Notrump opener to become Declarer when the responder holds six or more cards in a major suit and wishes to at least bid game.  See Details

Also see Books on Jacoby Transfers
 

Play

Third and Fifth - A lead convention where the opening lead is either the third or fifth card down from the top card held by the opener (top of sequence leads take precedence).  See Details.  Also see Journalist Leads

Also see Details on signaling and books on Signals
 

Play

Third From Even, Low From Odd - See Third and Fifth above

Bidding

3 Level Response To 1 No Trump - Many methods have been developed in response to opener's 1 Notrump bid.  See Details
 

Bidding

3 Notrump Opening - In addition to the standard agreement showing 25-27 High Card Points with 9 quick tricks and a balanced hand, some play the conventional Gambling 3 Notrump method.
 

Bidding

3 Notrump Overcall - If an opponent make a preemptive 3 level opening bid, a 3 Notrump bid promises a strong balanced hand with a stopper in the opponent's preemptive suit.  Additionally, a 3 Notrump bid may serve as a preemptive call, providing a semblance of a stopper with a long running suit.
 

Bidding

3 Notrump Response - In addition to the standard agreement showing 13 -15 High Card Points and a balanced hand with useful stoppers in the side suits.  See Details
 

Bidding

Three Quarter Notrump - The use of two ranges to open 1 Notrump, depending on the opener's vulnerability - higher when vulnerable, less when non-vulnerable (jokingly called "Chicken Notrump").  Also called Split Notrump and Variable Notrump.
 

Bidding

Thrump Double - Derived from the words "THRee  notRUMP", a specialized use of 3N useful after partner opens and Right Hand Opponent makes a preemptive 3 level bid (3D through 3S).   See Details
 

Bidding

Top and Bottom Cuebids - A cuebid of opponent's 1 level opening bid, indicating a two-suited hand - specifically the top and bottom (highest and lowest) remaining suits.  See Details
 

Bidding

Transfer - To make a conventional call instructing one's partner to bid another agreed-upon suit, generally for the purpose of having the stronger hand become Declarer.  While Oswald Jacoby is credited for the popular Jacoby Transfer convention, the concept was initially devised by David Carter, who devised Texas Transfers. Also, Olle Willner is also credited for publishing details of transfer bids in the early 1950's.  See Jacoby Transfer and Texas Transfers.
 

Bidding

Transfer Escape -  Many partners using a weak 1 Notrump system utilize an escape system when opponent's make a penalty Double.  Some use the original treatment devised by CC Wei as part of the Precision system.  Another popular approach is the Moscow Escape, which closely follows the DONT two-suited response system.  Some use other two-suited conventions similar to those used to interfere with opponent's 1 Notrump opener (as Brozel).  See Exodus and Pre-Escape
 

Bidding

Transfer Lebensohl - See Rubinsohl
 

Bidding

Transfer Overcalls Of 1 Notrump - After an opponent opens 1 Notrump, a conventional overcall by some players is a transfer to Overcaller's suit.  See Details
 

Bidding

Trump Asking Bid (TAB)- Commonly called TAB, an acronym associated with "Big Club" (Precision) and similar systems.  The convention, typically used in a game forcing auction with an agreed trump suit below game, queries partner for the attributes of their trump suit.  See Details
 

Play

Trump Echo - A defensive count signaling agreement when Declarer plays trump, typically playing the natural low-high with 2 (or 4) trump but playing middle-low (if middle is an affordable card) when holding 3 trump.  See Details and books on Signals
 

Play

Trumps Suit Preference - An alternative use of carding when declarer begins playing trump, allowing defenders to show suit preference based on the suit magnitude (rank).  See Details and books on Signals
 

Play

Trump Signal - The defender's use of trump to signal optimal play.  See Details and books on Signals
 

Play

Truscott - A novel defensive bid used over opponent's "Big Club" opening bid.  Generally, an overcall of a suit shows a two-suited hand, indicating the suit bid and the next higher suit (if Spades, then Clubs in inferred).  To show non-touching suits, the overcaller's bid is the Double to include the RHO's suit; otherwise, the overcaller bids 1 Notrump for non-touching suits not including RHO's suit.  A 6+ card suit is simply bid at the 2 level or higher.  See Details
 

Bidding

2 Club System - Referring to the conventional 2C strong artificial bid, implying preemptive "weak 2" preemptive bids in other suits. See Systems
 

Bidding

2 Diamond Opener - An opening bid of 2D holds many conventional meanings, in addition to the legacy natural strong bid.  See Examples
 

Bidding

2 Level Suit Opening - Agreements for opener's strong and weak two bids.  See Convention Card Instructions
 

Bidding

2/1 (Two-Over-One) System - A popular tournament bidding approach used in North America, used to efficiently show a game forcing auction.  Basically, when an unpassed partner opens 1H or 1S and no interference exists, responder's 2 level suit overcall in a different suit forces game (13+ points).  Thus, to handle responder's intermediate point range of 10 - 12 points, responder bids 1 Notrump (known as a Forcing Notrump).  See Details


Also see 2/1 Bridge Books
 

Bidding

Two Way Game Try - After opener makes a major suit bid and responder raises the suit, the use of both short suit and long suit game tries to discover possible game fits.  See Details.  Also see Game Try, Short Suit Game Try, Long Suit Game Try, Help Suit Game Try
 

Bidding

Two Way New Minor Forcing - An popular alternative to simplify some of the confusion is the Two Way New Minor Forcing structure.  Using this structure, 2C is always invitational and 2D is always game forcing.  See Details.
 

Bidding

Two Way Reverse Drury - An extension to Reverse Drury where 2 Clubs shows 10-11 points with three in partner's major suit and 2 Diamonds shows 10-11 points and four trump. See Details
 

Bidding

Two Way Stayman - In response to Opener's 1 Notrump bid, some players call 2C as a non-forcing Stayman and 2D as a Forcing Stayman.  See Forcing Stayman, Doublebarrel Stayman, and Stayman

Also see Books on Stayman

U


 

Bidding

Unassuming Cuebid - An advancer bid of opponents' suit, showing strong interest in game.  See Details
 

Bidding

Unbid Minor Suit Forcing - When the partnership bid begins:
1 Minor - 1 Major; 1 Notrump,  Responder's New Minor Suit is forcing and artificial.  See New Minor Suit Forcing
 

Bidding

Unpenalty Double - A double of opponents' slam specifically based on holdings with no defensive tricks, instead intended as a sacrifice takeout double.
 

Bidding

Unusual Notrump - A cuebid of opponent's 1 level opening bid, indicating a two-suited hand, typically the lower unbid suits
See Unusual Notrump, Director Tech File, Michaels Cuebid, Roman Jump Overcall
 

Bidding

Unusual Positive - Precision and other "big Club" players use artificial jumps to describe responder's slam invitational hands based on distributional merits (shortage in one suit).
 

Bidding

Unusual Versus Unusual (Unusual Over Unusual) - When opponents make an Unusual Notrump (or Michaels Cuebid) overcall showing a two-suited hand, many players employ invisible cuebids of the opponents implied suits and other treatments to bid effectively.  See Unusual Versus Unusual
 

Play

Upside Down Count and Attitude (UDCA) - Inverting the meaning assigned to standard defensive attitude and count signals while carding.  See Details and Carding

Also see books on Signals
 

Bidding

Useful Space Principle -  An elementary precept of the useful space concept would be "Slow shows, fast denies".  A more advanced concept would be the use of space-saving mechanisms, such as the Kickback Blackwood conventional treatment.  Kickback slam methods are invoked by bidding one denomination above the agreed upon suit rather than the higher 4N bid used by Blackwood.
 

V


 

Bidding

Virtual Cuebid - Also known as an invisible cuebid, a bid in the opponent's implied, but not bid, suit.
 


Bidding

Versus Opening Preempt Doubles - Partnership agreements by advancer when opponent makes a preemptive bid and partner makes a takeout double.  See Convention Card Instructions
 

Bidding

Voidwood - See Exclusion Blackwood
 

W


 

Bidding

Wagner Two Diamonds  - An opening bid of 2D is used to show a preemptive hand with either long Hearts or Spades.
 

Bidding

Walsh Diamond (Walsh Responses) - After opener's 1C bid, responder bypasses 1D with a minimum hand (even with 5-6 Diamonds), instead bidding a 4 card major.  Holding a hand with game values, responder first makes a conventional bid of 1D (with as few as 1 Diamond), planning to make a reverse rebid to a major suit, indicating game-going values.  After responder's conventional 1D response, opener rebids 1N with a balanced hand (even with 4-4 in the majors).  See Details
 

Bidding

Walsh System - A collection of bidding agreements originally developed by Richard Walsh.  The system, earlier called Western Scientific, was adapted from the Roth-Stone system and included:
 

1.

Game-forcing Two-Over-One responses

2.

Five-card Major openings with a forcing 1 No Trump response

3.

1C - 1D "Walsh 1 Diamond" response (usually Game Forcing)

4.

Limit Major Raises

5.

Strong 1 No Trump opening

6.

Stayman (non-forcing), Jacoby Transfers

7.

Inverted Minors

8.

Doubles: Negative, Responsive, Competitive

9.

New Minor Forcing

10.

Mathe Asking Bids

See Systems
 

Bidding

Weak Jump Overcall - A non-constructive skip bid over opponent's initial bid, with the intention to preempt opponents.  Example:

(1D) - 2S
 

Bidding

Weak Jump Shift - After partner opens the bidding, the use of a jump bid in a new suit, with the intention to preempt opponents.  Example:

1C - (P) - 2S
 

Bidding

Weak Suit Game Try - After the partnership have identified a fit, this game try technique allows opener to rebid an inferior suit with loser; responder accepts the game try with good support (typically honors) in the weak suit, otherwise signs off bidding at the 3 level in the agreed trump suit.  See Game Try, Help Suit Game Try. Short Suit Game Try, Long Suit Game Try, Help Suit Game Try
 

Bidding

Weak 2 Bid - A 2 level opening bid (other than the strong 2C bid or a two level bid in the fourth seat), intended to serve as a preemptive call typically with values beneath an opening hand.   Like its 3 level big brother, the Weak 2 preempt bid serves to obstruct opponents' bidding by taking up valuable bidding space intended to inhibit the opposition from accurately bidding.  A second benefit of preempts provides the partner lead-directing information and an opportunity to explore distributional game or slam options, or make a sacrifice bid by increasing the level of the preempt. For details, see Details, Convention Card Instructions, Feature, and obstructive bidding Systems

Also see Books on Preempts
 

Bidding

Weiss - A defensive method over opponent's preemptive overcalls.  A double promises 2+ cards in opener's suit with near-balanced distribution.  A bid of the cheapest minor is equivalent to a traditional takeout double.
 

Bidding

Western Cuebid - A bid in opponent's suit used to ask if partner holds a stopper, anticipating partner may chose to call Notrump.  Conversely, other players prefer to play Eastern Cuebid,  which shows a stopper.  See Details and Cuebids
 

Bidding

Western Scientific - See Walsh System


Bidding

Wholesale - A call showing gross rather than specific attributes.  For instance, after 5 Notrump regular Blackwood call the responder bids show the wholesale count of the number of Aces without inquiring about a specific Ace (as opposed to "Specific Kings", bid up the line).
 


Bidding

Woolsey - The Woolsey Bridge bidding convention against opponents' 1 Notrump opening bid (also known as Mosher) shows various two-suited hands as well as a single-suited major suit.   Woolsey's methods focus on obstructive methods, thus Woolsey's double is not used for penalty  See Details
 

Bidding

Wolff Signoff - After opener makes a strong 2 Notrump rebid, the Wolff Signoff is a responder method normally used by responder to warn the strong opener of sub-game values; in the normal situation, the opener is instructed to Pass. See Example
 

Bidding

Wonder Bid - A defensive bidding system against strong artificial club sequences. When the partnership is vulnerable, then Wonder Bids are applied.  If the partnership is not vulnerable, then IDAK or IDAC is used.  IDAK is an acronym for Instant Destroyer And Killer, and IDAC is an acronym for Instant Destruction Against a Club.  These bids, originally created by the Crossley brothers, have not found their way into the mainstream.
 

X


 

Bidding

XYZ Convention - XYZ, meaning three successive partnership bids beneath the 2 level is a forcing conventional bid (similar to New Minor Forcing and Checkback Stayman methods).   See Details
 

Y


 

Bidding

Yellow Rose Of Texas - In response to partner's Notrump opening bid, the use of shape-showing bids after a Texas Transfer to investigate the best attainable slam contract (if possible).  See Example
 

Z


 

 

Go to Glossary Conventions A-M
 

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