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ITALIAN BLUE CLUB
Courtesy of BridgeGuys (Pradeep Verma)

1.

Strong Openings = 17 +

   1C:  17+, unbalanced; 18+ balanced
   2D:  17 - 24, 4-4-4-1 distribution, any singleton
   2NT: 21-22 balanced

2.

Weak Openings: 6 - 11

   2H/2S                  : 6 or 7 carder suit, rule of 2 and 3
   3D/3H/3S (not 3C) : 6 or 7 carder suit, rule of 2 and 3
   3NT                     : 7 carder minor with AKQ, nothing much else
   4C/4D/4H/4S         : 8 carder suit, rule of 2 and 3
   5C/5D                  : 8 carder suit, rule of 2 and 3

3.

Normal Openings: 11 - 16

   1D                : May be 3 carder with C suit
   1H/1S            : Minimum 4 carder
   1NT (13-17)    : 13-15 with C suit and 3 carder H and S,  OR
     16-17 any suit; BALANCED
   2C                : very good 5 carder or good 6 carder C
   3C                : very good 7 carder suit, 7-8 playing tricks

PART II - DEVELOPMENT OF STRONG CALLS

1.

Response to 1C Openings (control showing) without intervention

   1D   : 0 - 5, maximum 2 controls
   1H   : 6+   , maximum 2 controls Forcing to 2NT level
   1S   : 3 controls, Game force
   1NT  : 4 controls, Game force
   2C   : 5 controls, Game force
   2D   : 6 controls, Game force
   2NT  : 7 controls, Game force and then you will not believe us
   2H/2S: 4-5, six carder points mostly in the suit

2.

Responses to 1C opening (control showing) with intervention


   Intervention                    Response
   ------------                       --------
   Double                           Pass: 0 - 3
    1D  : 4 - 5
    Redouble: 4 - 5 C suit
    1H and above: as original

   1D/1H/1S                        Pass: for original 1D
    Double: for original 1H
    Next step and above: 3 controls etc
    2H/2S: as original

   1NT                                Pass: 0 - 5
    Double: for penalties (6+)
    2C/2D: 0 - 5, long suit, non-forcing
    2H/2S: as original

   2C/2D/2H/2S                    Double: for penalties
    2NT:    3 - 4 controls
    Cue bid: 5 or more controls

   3 level                             Pass: 0 - 6
    Double: For penalties
    Suit: non-forcing, contesting 7 - 8 points

   Summary:
1) After intervention by 1D/1H/1S, Pass replaces 1D and Double replaces
   1H, gaining one step on 1D intervention and losing 1 step on 1S
   intervention.

        2) On intervention by double, opportunity is made available to show
   0 - 3 or 4 -5 points.

        3) On intervention by 1NT or above, double is always for penalties

4) On intervention at 2 level, 2NT and  cue bid show controls.

3.

Development of 1C Openings

   1D          1H/S unbalanced min 4 carder, canape' style for safety
   (0 - 5)     1NT (18 -20) balanced
    2C: Gladiator, opener to bid 2D on way to signoff
 2D      Pass to play
           2H/2S to play
2NT six carder C with K or Q
3D  six carder D with K or Q

            2D: Stayman
    2H/2S Golden Misiere 5 carder with 5 points or 6 carder
          with 4-5 points, points distributed in different suits
                    2NT   Five card minor with KQ
    3C/3D Six carder with KQ
    4C/4D Texas

                2C/2D unbalanced hand, minimum 5 carder
2H/2S/3C/3D Minimum 5 carder forcing 1 round (Jump bid)
    Rebid same suit next round, non forcing
    New suit, next round, forcing
2NT (23-24) Balanced
      Pass: Natural
      3C  : Gladiator, opener to bid 3D followed by Pass/3H/3S
    to play
      3D  : Stayman
      3H/3S: 4-5, 5 carder opener to cue bid with a fit (Axx
     or Kxx) or close at 3NT or 4H/4S
      4C/4D: Texas
3NT (25-26), Balanced
     4C: Gladiator (0 - 3), opener to bid 4D followed by Pass/
4H/4S/4C/5D to play
                     4D: Stayman
     4H/4S: Natural, 4 - 5 points


    1H                      1S: Minimum 5 carder, responses natural min 4 carder

    (6+, Max 2 controls 1NT: 18 - 20 Balanced
    forcing upto 2NT)            2C: Baron followed by 2NT, min non-forcing
                                        Any call at 3 level is forcing
                                 2D: Stayman followed by 2NT, min non-forcing
                                        Any call at 3 level is forcing
                                            2H/2S: Minimum 5 carder
                                            2NT: min, non-forcing
                     2NT: 23 - 24
                                            3C: Baron
                                            3D: Stayman
     Jump in a suit, six carder semi solid, responder to
     join with Qx or better

     1S (3 controls,         1NT: 18 - 20 Balanced
 game force)              2C: Baron
                                            2D: Stayman
                                             2H/2S: 5 carder

     2C/2D/2H/2S: five carder
                                            Natural 4 carder by responder

     1NT (4 controls)        2C/2D/2H/2S: five carder
              2NT: 18 - 20 Balanced
  3C: Baron
  3D: Stayman
  3H/3S: Five carder, opener to cue bid with a
  fit (Axx or Kxx)

      2C (5 controls)        2D/2H/2S: Five carder, bids by responder natural
                                                 4 carders
     2NT: 18 - 20 balanced
  3C: Baron
  3D: Stayman
  3H/3S: Five carder, opener to cue bid with a
 fit

      2D (6 controls)        same as above

      2H/2S (4-5, six carder) Natural (Most of the points in the suit)

      2NT (7 controls) 3C/3D/3H/3S: 5 carder
3NT: 18 - 20 Balanced
    4C: Baron
    4D: Stayman
    4H/4S: Five carder

 Summary
 -------
 1) 1D/1H: shows max 2 controls and then controls are shown step wise
 2) 1H is 6+ and forcing to 2NT level. If opener or responder bid 2NT after
    next bid by either, it shows minimum hand, which can either be passed or
    with more points, opener or responder should cross 2NT level with or without
    jump.
 3) After 1D, opener bids canape' style for finding a fit on unbalanced hand
    but after 1H/S etc response, opener bids naturally always 5 carder first
 4) After any response, opener bids NT on balanced hand after which responder's
    minimum C is gladiator and min D is stayman, if response was 1D and
    min C is Baron on any other response
 5) Baron is employed only by "RESPONDER" and not by opener. Opener must first
    show balanced hand by bidding NT
 6) Gladiator is employed only by "RESPONDER" to show 0 - 3 points and no game
    desire on his part
 7) With a fit (Axx, Kxx) opener or responder should raise to set the ground
    for cue-bidding at low level

4.

Development of 2D openings (17-24, 4-4-4-1)

   Legend: NBS: Next below Singleton
                           +: Singleton

   2S (0 - 3) signoff      2NT: 17-20, S+
   (May be 3 carder)            Pass/3C/3D/3H/3S: Sign off
   3C/3D/3S: 21-24 NBS (3C = D+, 3D = H+, 3S = C+)
   3H/3NT: 23-24, S+

   2NT one weak six        3C/3S/3H/3S: NBS
   carder Max KJ, nothing     Actual suit or 3NT. With a fit opener can
   else in hand                   cue bid

   3C/3D/3H/3S: fair suit: Actual singleton (NOTE: NOT NBS)
   6 carder, min AJ              Responder with fit bids:
   nothing else in hand        1st step: suit with 1 honor, no singleton
                                       2nd step: suit with 2 honors, no singleton
                                       3rd step: suit with side singleton
                                                     cue bid by opener on which responder
                                                     bids his singleton

   2H relay       2S 17 - 20 Major +
       2NT Relay
   3C: 17 - 20 H+
       3H Relay
   3S  17 - 18 }
   3NT 19 - 20 }
   4H Relay for opener to show controls
        starting from 3 upwards after which 5H is
        relay asking for Qs. Any other call is
        a signoff
                            3D: 17 - 18, S+
3S Relay, opener to show controls after which
4S is relay asking for Q. Any other call is
signoff.

                            3H: 19 - 20, S+, 3S Relay for controls and then
4S for Q.  Any other call, sign off.

  2NT 17 - 20 , C+ (NBS)
3C Relay
   3D: 17 - 18 }
   3H: 19 - 20 }
                             4C Relay for controls and then 5C for Q.
                             Any other call is signoff

                  3C 17 - 20 D+ (NBS)
3D Relay
   3H: 17 - 18 }
   3S: 19 - 20 }
 4D Relay for controls and then 5D for Q. Any other
      call is signoff

          3D: 21-24 H+ (NBS)
      3H Relay for controls starting from 5 and then 4H for Q
                            Any other call is signoff

                  3H: 21-24 S+ (NBS)
      3S relay for controls starting from 5 and then 4S for Q.
                            Any other call is signoff

                  3S: 21-24 C+ (NBS)
      4C relay for controls starting from 5 and then 5C for Q.
                            Any other call is signoff
            
  3NT: 21-24 D+ (only call upto 3NT level)
      4D relay for controls starting from 5 and then 5D for Q.
                            Any other call is signoff
     
Summary
-------
1) Response of 2S may be 3 carder with a very weak hand to sign off
2) Response of 2NT shows poor hand with 6 carder and opener bids NBS.
3) Response of 3 of a suit shows fair suit, which opener with min and no
   fit should pass in a hurry. With a fit, opener bids his "ACTUAL SINGLETON"
   and not NBS, on which responder shows quality of his suit and holding of a
   singleton or otherwise.
4) Response of 2H is relay asking for point range and singleton. Opener's first
   three steps are for 17 - 20 range(2S: major +, 2NT C+, 3C: D+) and next four
   steps are 21 - 24 range(3D=H+,3H+S+,3S=C+,3NT=D+)
5) After responder has employed 2H relay, any call by him is a sign off unless
   he continues to bid opener's singleton.

5.

Development of 2NT opening (21-22 Balanced)

   3C Gladiator                   3D
     Pass/3H/3S/4C To Play
     3NT: six carder C with K or Q
     4D:  six carder D with K or Q (opener may
  like to play in 4NT)

   3D  Stayman                    3H major (does not deny S)
     3S: 5 carder opener to cue bid with fit
     3NT: To play
     4C: relay asking for distribution
 4D: D suit (3-4-4-2) or (2-4-4-3)
 4H: Only H suit (3-4-3-3)
 4S: S suit (4-4-3-2) or (4-4-2-3)
 4NT: C suit (3-4-2-4) or (2-4-3-4)

  3S (S major, denies H)
     3NT: To play
     4C: relay for distribution
4D: D suit (4-3-4-2) or (4-2-4-3)
4S: only S suit (4-3-3-3)
4NT: C suit(4-3-2-4) or (4-2-3-4)

                                  3NT No major
     4C Relay for minors
4D: D suit 3-3-4-3
4H: C and D with 3 carder H (2-3-4-4)
4S: C and D with 3 carder S (3-2-4-4)
4NT: C suit 3-3-3-4
5C : 5 carder C
5D : 5 carder D

   3H/3S suit 5 carder            3NT no fit
  Raise: support, less than Axx, Kxx
  Cue bid: Axx or Kxx support

   3NT to play
   4C/4D                          Texas
   4H/S(very good six carder      To Play
slam aspiration)

Summary:
-------
1) 3 C by responder is gladiator, making it possible to sign off in 3D
2) 3D is stayman and followed by 4 C is asking for distribution


PART III - Development of Weak Calls

1.

Development of 2H/2S (6-11 Rule of 2 and 3) six carder
 
   2S/2NT Relay for points and quality (P and Q)
  Stepwise response (P before Q)
  1st step: 6 - 9, two top honors missing
  2nd step: 6 - 9, with two top honors
  3rd step: 10 - 11, two top honors missing
  4th step: 10 - 11, with two top honors
  5th step: Suit headed with AKQ
   New Suit:  Forcing one round

2.

 Development of 3NT (solid 7-carder minor headed with AKQ)

   Pass: To play
   4C relay asking for singleton(+)
 4D: D+
 4H: H+
 4S: S+
 4NT: No +
         5C: D +                <<< Remember >>> 5C is D+
 5D: C +             <<< Remember >>> 5D is C+

3.

Development of other weak openings

New suit is forcing one round
Another new suit next round game force.


PART IV - BASIC CONCEPTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF NORMAL CALLS (13 - 16)

1.

FOR OPENER: Single suiter

   i) Hand with 13-14 is considered weak. Hand with 15-16 is considered strong
      ONLY if the suit is good.

  ii) Weak hand is shown by bidding min. NT, rebid or raise

 iii) Strong hand is shown by jump bid.
       2NT: good six carder, max AJ
       In suit: semi solid six carder

  iv) Balanced 16-17 hand is opened 1NT
  
   v) With 13-16, C suit, opening bids are
   1D : 13-14 VUL, weak 4 or 5 carder C
   1NT: 13-14 NON VUL or 15 VUL, weak 4 or 5 carder C
   2C : 13-16, very good C suit
   3C : 13-16 seven carder very good C suit, 7-8 playing tricks

2.

FOR OPENER: Two Suiter canape' style


   i) Weak hand is shown by higher, then lower suit (second suit is at least as
      long as first suit, may be longer), or by NT or raise. After 1NT response
      canape' is not guaranteed as bid of lower second suit is to find best fit.

  ii) Weak hand with 4 D and 4S is opened 1S with tolerance for H, otherwise 1D
 iii) Strong hand is shown by:
          reverse(not at 1 level): Second suit, 5 carder
  Jump in second suit: Second suit semi-solid six carder (except when
       second suit is C in which case it shows 4 carder
       C and semisolid six carder first suit)
          Jump in partner's suit: when opener was himself going to reverse in
  that suit

3.

FOR RESPONDER: single suiter

   i) 1 over 1 is 6+ (one round force), 1NT is 8-10, 2 over 1 is 11+ forcing to
      2NT
  ii) Second round jump in own suit is 10-11, semi solid six carder
 iii) Second round jump in opener's 1 D suit is 9-10 non forcing but in opener's
      1H/S suit is 12+, SuperFit, forcing
  iv) New suit at 3 level with or without a jump is forcing
   v) hands with 12+ are shown by:
   Reverse : second suit five carder (Responder uses 2C or 2D as
         first bid, even with 3 carder but with some
      values, to prepare for reverse
           Jump in a new suit: Semi-solid six carder
 Cue bid in opponents' suit, opener to bid NT with a stopper
 Second round jump in opener's major: SuperFit (Min 4 card support
                                        with two top honors.
           Using SuperFit calls (See item 5)

4.

FOR RESPONDER: Two suiter
   -------------
   i) Hands upto 11 points are bid in canape' style,  higher then lower or NT
      or raise
  ii) Hands with 12+ are shown by:
     Reverse at 2 level: first suit always min 4 carder except when it
                  or higher is D three carder with values
                Second round jump in new suit: first suit min 4 carder, second suit
                  semi solid six carder

5.

FOR RESPONDER: SUPERFIT calls in opener's major

   SUPERFIT means 12+, minimum 4 card support with two top honors in opener's
   first major or five card support in opener's second major where opener was
   going to reverse in that suit.
   Responder shows controls (A or K, not singleton or void) with superfit as
   follows:

   i) 1H/S by opener followed by rebid of 2H/2S/2NT

      2C - 4C        : control in C, not in D
      2D - 4D        : control in D, not in C
      2C - 4D        : Alike controls in C and D (A for Ascending)
      2D - 4C        : Different controls in C and D (D for Descending)

  ii) 1S by opener followed by 2H

      2C/2D - 3S     : Superfit in S, control in C/D, control in other minor not
       denied. Opener was going to employ superfit call if rebid
       was 2S or 2NT
      2C/2D - 4C     : Superfit in H, 5 card support. Responder was going to
       reverse in H, control in C, control in D not denied
      2C/2D - 4D     : Superfit in H, 5 card support. Responder was going to
       reverse in H, control in D, no control in C
      2C/2D - 4H     : Superfit in H, 5 card support, Responder was going to
       reverse in H, C or D control,  minimum hand
      2C/2D - 3H     : Superfit in H, 5 card support, Responder was going to
       reverse in H, better hand, inviting cue bidding

 iii) 1H by opener followed by 2S

      2C/2D - 4C     : Fit in H, responder was going to employ superfit call,
       control in C/D. control in other minor not denied
      2C/2D - 4D     : Fit in S, 5 card support, responder was going to reverse
       in S, no controls promised in C or D, better hand
       inviting cue bid
      2C/2D - 4S     : Fit in S, 5 card support, responder was going to reverse
       in S, minimum hand, control in C and D not denied
      2C/2D - 3S     : Fit in S, 5 card support, responder was going to reverse
       in S, better hand, inviting cue bidding

    Summary
    -------
   i) On rebid of same major or 2NT, responder's 2C/2D followed by 4C/4D shows
      controls and type of controls in C/D
  ii) On opener's 1S/2H, responder's 2C/2D followed by jump to 3S shows superfit
      in S and jump to 4C/D shows reversible hand in H and control in C/D but
      jump to 4H shows minimum hand denying controls in C/D. With
      better hand, responder raises 2H to 3H, still showing reversible hand and
      inviting cue bidding
 iii) On opener's 1H/2S reverse, responder's 2C/2D followed by jump to 4C shows
      reversible hand in H and jump to 4D shows reversible hand in S.
      Jump to 4S shows minimum reversible hand and raise to 3S shows better
      reversible hand in S.

6.

SLAM Bidding

   i) 4NT is Ace asking ONLY of bid by opener or responder in second round
      of bidding or when it is with a jump. Otherwise, if suit has matched and
      4NT is bid after cue-bids, it shows willingness to play at 5 level and
      asks for continuation of cue bidding. If suit is not matched, it is
      QUANTITATIVE asking partner to bid six with additional values or else
      sign off.
  ii) Principle of fast approach means that after strong opening support or
      after responder shows 12+, if partner jumps to game, there is no slam
      aspiration and hand is minimum, but if suit is matched with a single
      raise, there is slam ambition and cue bids must continue below the game
      level.
 iii) When suit has matched, cue bid shows first or second round control (A,K
      singleton or void) starting from lowest bid. If a suit is bypassed, it
      initially denies a control, but if that suit is bid next time it shows
      first round control in first cue bid and second round control in
      second cue bid.
  iv) After a jump bid, showing semi-solid six carder partner should raise with
      any three carder or Qx to set the scene for cue bidding.
   v) After cue bids, the partner holding minimum hand should not go beyond the
      game level. Crossing game level shows additional value.
  vi) Having bypassed a suit in cue bidding twice, and then bidding shows third
      round control i.e. Qxx or xx.
 vii) Jump to 5NT asks partner to show quality of the suit agreed. Partner is
      to bid 7 with two top honors, otherwise:
      S Suit:         6S: Suit headed with A or K, min 4 carder
      6H: Suit headed with A or K
      6D: Suit headed with Q
      5C: Suit headed with J or less

      H Suit          6H: Suit headed with A or K
      6D: Suit headed with Q
      6C: Suit headed with J or less

      D Suit          6D: Suit headed with A or K
      6C: Suit headed with Q or less

      C Suit          6C: Suit lacks 2 top honors
viii) Responses to 4NT, if Ace asking are
      5C : 4 or 1
      5D : 3 or 0
      5H : Two Aces same rank (both majors or minors)
      5S : Two Aces mixed (neither same rank nor same color (S and D or H and C)
      5NT: Two Aces of same color (either both black or both red)

      To remember: 41-30-RMC (rank/mixed/color)

PART V - DEVELOPMENT OF 1NT/2C/3C Calls

1.

DEVELOPMENT OF 1 NOTRUMP OPENING:

   13-15 with C suit, 16-17 any suit Balanced.
   If 13-15, always with 3 carder H and 3 carder S

   2C     Relay asking for   2D: C Suit: 13 with 5 carder, 14 with 4 carder
   (8-11) range                  2S/2NT/3C: sign off
 3D/3H/3S: 11 points, inviting
 4H/4S: To play
                             2H: C suit, 14 with 5 carder or 15 with 4 carder
 2S/2NT/3C/3D sign off
 3H/3S: 11 points, inviting
                                 4H/4S: To play
                             2S: 16-17 (S for Spades, S for Strong)
 2NT Stayman
     3C  no major
     3D  both majors with 3 card D
     3H  H major
     3S  S major
     3NT both majors with 3 card C
                             3C/3D signoff
 3H/3S forcing
                             2NT:C suit 15 with 5 carder
 3C/3D signoff
 3H/3S inviting
 4H/4S To play

   Double on intervention    Double on intervention shows 16-17
   replaces 2C.

   2D stayman              2H: 16-17 H suit
   12+ Game force                2S/3C/3D: 5 carder, opener to raise with a
                                         fit (Axx or Kxx) or bid NT or show 2nd suit
                                 2NT: Opener to show second suit
 3H : raise, opener to cue-bid (4 card support)
 3S : Semi-solid six carder, opener to join on
      Qx or better
                                 3NT: To play
 4H : To play (4 card support)

 2S: 16-17 S major
2NT: opener to show second suit
3C/3D/3H: five carder, opener to cue bid with a
  fit and raise with Qxx or less support
  or bid NT
                                 3S : opener to cue bid
3NT/4S: To play (4S 4 card support)
    2NT:13-15 C suit
3C Relay for strength and length of C suit
   3D 13-14, 4 carder C suit
   3H 15, 4 carder C suit
   3S 13-14, 5 carder C suit
   3NT 15, 5 carder C suit
3D/3H/3S: five carder, opener to cue bid with a
  fit and raise with Qxx or less support
  or bid NT
3NT: To play
                                   3C: 16-17 no major
 3D Relay for minors
    3H: C suit
    3S: D suit
    3NT: both C and D suit
                            3D/3H/3S: 16-17 five carder
 New suit five carder
 Raise support, opener to cue bid

   On intervention, 2NT or   Double on intervention shows 16-17
   cue bid replaces 2D
   (2NT promises a stopper
    and cue bid asks for a
    stopper)

   2H/2S signoff            Natural
   0 - 7 To play

   2NT Balanced             Natural
   10-11

   3C/3D/3H/3S              Natural
   6 carder headed with two
   top honors nothing else

   Summary
   -------
   i) 2C is relay (8-11) asking for range on which only 2S by opener shows
      16-17 while 2D/2H/2NT show C suit with points/length. On 2S responder's
      2NT is stayman. Calls upto 3C/3D are sign offs
  ii) 2D is 12+ stayman on which only 2NT shows 13-15 C suit on which 3C is
      relay and opener shows points and length of C suit. Calls 2H/2S/3C are
      16-17 and responder can there after  ascertain minors or second suit or
      reverse in 3H/3S on which opener bids NT with no fit, raises with 3 card
      support with Q or less, and cue bids with fit (Axx or Kxx)
 iii) Jump to 3 shows only 6 carder with 2 top honors, nothing else in hand.

2.

DEVELOPMENT OF 3C OPENING
   -------------------------
   13-16 seven carder very good suit, 7-8 playing tricks
   Effort is to play in NT by showing stoppers, not suits

   3D D stopper          3H:  H stopper, no S stopper
 3S:  S stopper, no H stopper
 3NT: S and H stopper
 4C:  No stopper in H or S or both

   3H H stopper          3S:  D stopper, no S stopper (NOTE: critical suit is D)
   (no D stopper)        3NT: D and S stopper
 4C:  no D stopper

   3S S stopper          3NT: H and D stopper
   (no D or H stopper)   4C:  No stopper either in H or D or in both

   3NT stoppers in       To play
   D,H and S

   4C inviting

   4D/4H/4S              Cue bid with fit, otherwise natural
   semi-solid 6 carder,
   12+ slam interest

   Summary
   -------
   i) Bids shows stoppers. With stoppers missing in a suit, 4C is signoff
  ii) After 3C-3H, bid of 3S by opener shows stopper in D, the CRITICAL SUIT,
      and denies stopper in S
 iii) Jump by responder in new suit is 12+, six carder semi-solid suit, slam
      interest

3.

DEVELOPMENT OF 2C OPENING

   13-16 Very Good C Suit, normally six carder
   13-16 only C Suit OR 15-16 with a side suit

   2D Relay     2H   15-16, 4 carder H
     Pass/2NT/3C/3D To play
     2S: 12+ five carder S (reverse)
     3H: Minimum 4 carder support, opener to cue bid
     3S: 12+, 4 card D, 6 carder semi-solid S
     4C: 12+, five card support in H, responder was going to
         reverse, no control in D, waiting bid not necessarily
                         control in C
                     4D: 12+, five card support in H, control in D
                     4H: To play
      
2S   15-16, 4 carder S
     Pass/2NT/3C/3D: To play
     3H: 12+, five card H (reverse)
     3S: Minimum 4 card support, opener to cuebid
     4C: 12+ five card support in S, responder was going to
 reverse. no control in D, waiting bid not necessarily
 control in C
                     4D: Same as above, control in D
     4H: 12+, 4 card D, six carder semi-solid H
     4S: To play
                 
                2NT  13-16 C suit, stoppers in two side suits
     3C: To Play
     3D: Relay for NT probe
 3H  stoppers in H and D
 3S  stoppers in S and D
 3NT stoppers in H and S
                     3H: 12+, five card H (reverse). D may be waiting bid
 3NT  no support for H
 3S   fit in H, stopper in S, not in D
 4C   fit in H, stopper on D but not a control
 4D   fit in H, control in D
                         4H   Qxx or less support, hence no cue bid
      (fit means min Axx or Kxx support)
                     3S: 12+, 5 card S (reverse)
 3NT no support for S
 4C  fit in S, stopper in H or S but not a control
 4D  fit in S, control in D, no control or stopper in H
 4H  fit in S, control in H, no control or stopper in D
 4S  Qxx or less 3 card support, hence no cue bid

3C   13-16 C suit, stopper in one side suit
     3D Relay NT Probe
3H  stopper in H
3S  stopper in S
3NT stopper in D
                     3H 12+, 5 carder H (reverse) D may be waiting bid
        3S  stopper in S, no support for H
        3NT no stopper in S, no support for H,stopper in D
                        4C  fit in H, no control in D
4D  fit in H, control in D
4H  Qxx or less 3 card support
                     3S 12+, 5 card S (reverse) D may be waiting bid
3NT no support in S, stopper either in H or D
4C  fit in S, no control in D
4D  fit in S, control in D
4H  Qxx or less 3 card support
                     4H/4S: 4 card D, six card semi-solid H/S, slam intention
                3D   15-16, 4 card D
     3H: 12+, 5 carder, opener to bid naturally
     3S: 12+, 5 carder, opener to bid naturally
     3NT/4C: To play
     4D: Support, opener to cue bid
                 3H/3S/4D: 15-16, 6-5 distribution, responder bids naturally
 4C: 15-16 very good C suit

   2H/2S 6-10, 5 card  4C: 15-16, opener was going to reverse in H/S, no control
   non-forcing             in D
                       4D: 15-16, opener was going to reverse in H/S, control in
   C and D

   2NT 11-12 balanced  Natural

   3C 8-10 raise       Natural

   3D/3H/3S 12+        Raise with Qx or better or rebid C or 3NT
   semi-solid six
   carder

   Summary
   -------
   i) Responder's 2H/2S is weak, non forcing on which opener's jump to 4C/4D
      shows 15-16 with 4 card support and control.
  ii) Responder's 2D is relay, openers 2NT/3C shows only C suit with stoppers
      in side suits and relay of 3D is relay asking for suits stopped, but
      responder's second round bid of 3H/3S shows 12+, reversible hand with 5
      carder suit (D may have been waiting bid) on which opener cue bids  with
      a fit(Axx, Kxx) and gives a waiting bid of 4C without controls in side
      suits. With only Qxx or less 3 card support, opener raises it 4H/4S
      without cue bidding
 iii) Responder's 2D is relay and opener's 2H/2S shows 15-16 with 4 carder H/S
      on which responder's jump to 4C/4D shows 12+, reversible hand in opener's
      second suit and controls in D
  iv) Opener's jump in second suit show 15-16, 6-5 distribution.

PART VI - DEVELOPMENT OF SUIT CALLS OF ONE (13-16)

Minimum 4 carder, D may be 3 carder with a C suit
1. REBIDS BY OPENER: Single suiter hands

   13-14 Minimum NT, Rebid original suit, raise partner's suit
   15-16 Jump to 2NT: Weak six carder, at best AJ
 Jump in original suit: semi-solid six carder
2. REBIDS BY OPENER: Two suiter hands

   13-14  Minimum NT, lower suit, raise partner's suit, simple rebid (with S and
  D, 4 carder open 1S and then D with no tolerance for H but tolerance
  for C so that if partner bids 2H, opener can bid 2NT showing minimum.
  With tolerance for H, but no tolerance in C, open 1D)

  Canape' style, second suit is at least as long as first (may be 4-4)
  but EXCEPTION: After 1NT, response, first suit may be longer than
  second as effort is to find the best fit on unbalanced hands

   15-16  Reverse at 2 level, or above: canape', second suit always 5 carder

  Jump in second lower or higher suit, first suit 4 carder (may not
  be biddable), second suit semi-solid six carder but EXCEPTION: If
  second suit is C, then first suit is semi-solid six carder and C
  is only 4 carder because 15-16 hands with a good C suit and a side
  suit are opened as 2C.

  Jump to 3 or 4 level in partner's major: reversible hand with 5 card
  support or 15-16, 4-4-4-1 with 4 card support.

          Jump to 4C on 2C/2D response shows first suit semi-solid six carder
  and 4 card C as partner's 2C/2D may be waiting bid. Partner to join
  first suit with Qx or better.

  Jump to 4D on 2D response shows first suit 4 carder, six carder semi-
  solid D suit as partner's 2D may be a waiting bid. Partner to start
  cue bidding as he has already shown values in D, by bidding 2D
  even 3 carder

  Jump to 4C/4D on partner's response of 1H/1S, shows reversible hand
  in H/S, game certain, first round control in C/D. Direct jump to
  4H/4S denies FIRST ROUND control in C/D

 5-5 hands 13-14 higher/lower/higher
   15-16 lower/higher/lower

 5-6 hands 13-14 higher/lower/higher/lower
   15-16 lower/higher/lower/higher

 6-5 hands 13-14 higher/lower/higher/higher
   15-16 lower/higher/lower/higher
3. REBIDS BY OPENER: Three suiter hands 4-4-4-1

   13-14   Select better two suits and bid higher/lower
   15-16   Treat as 13-14 as hand is not treated as of higher range unless at
   least one suit is good 5 carder but give a jump to 3 level in
   partner's major.
4. RESPONDER'S BIDS

   First Round        Second Round
   1 over 1: 6+       Minimum NT, rebid, raise, lower suit(canape'): 8 - 10
 
      Reverse at 2/3 level: 12+, first suit 4 carder, second
      suit always 5 carder

      Jump in same suit: (9-10) semi-solid six carder

      Jump in new suit: 12+, semi-solid six carder. first
      suit 4 carder

      Jump to 3 in opener's original minor (1D): 9-10 five card
      support, non-forcing

      Jump to 3 in opener's first major: 12+, superfit

     1NT 8-10         Natural

     2C/2D:11+ May    Reverse canape': 12+, second suit 5 carder, C/D may be
     be 3 carder      3 carder
     with values,
     forcing up to    Jump in new suit: 12+, 4 card C/D, six carder semi-solid
     2NT              suit, unless it is a superfit call for opener's major

      Superfit call in opener's major, 12+

      New lower suit at 3 level (3C after 2D) canape': forcing,
      D minimum 4 carder, C 4 or 5 carder

      2H over 1S      Natural
      11+ minimum
      4 card, forcing New lower suit at 3 level, canape', forcing
      to 2NT

      Jump to 2NT     Natural
      11-12 Dead
      Center

      Jump in new     Natural
      suit,12+ semi-
      solid 6 carder

      Jump to 4C on   Gerber Ace asking, opener to show 0-1-2-3-4 step wise
      opener's 1H/1S

      Jump to 3 in    Natural
      opener's major
      10-11 limit bid
 
      Jump to 4 in    Natural
      opener's major
      7-9, five card
      support, one
      singleton
 
    Summary
    -------
    i) 15-16 hands are to be treated as 13-14 unless the hand contains at least
       one good five carder.
   ii) Single suiter hands are bid by opener by min NT, raise, rebid,lower suit,
       if 13-14 and by jump to 2NT if 15-16. Jump in suit always promises six
       carder semi-solid suit.
  iii) Two suiter hands 13-14 are bid canape' style higher/lower. With S & D as
       suits 4-4, open S with tolerance for C and D with tolerance for H. Three
       suiter 4-4-4-1 hands are opened selecting the 2 best suits, in canape'
       style.
   iv) Two suiter 15-16 hands are opened lower/higher (second suit always five
       carder). Jump in second suit promises first suit 4 carder, second suit
       semi-solid six carder (except when jump is in C, in which case C is
       4 carder and first suit is semi-solid). Jump in responser's suit shows
       reversible hand, five card support.
    v) Responder's 2 over 1 is forcing to 2NT level. Response of 2C/2D may be
       three carder with values in the suit to prepare for reverse or show
       superfit in opener's major.
   vi) Responder's second jump in own suit is limited semi-solid six carder but
       first round jump in a suit or second round jump in new suit shows semi-
       solid six carder with first suit as 4 carder (unless superfit calls are
       used).
  vii) Responder's second round jump in opener's minor (D) is limited,
       non-forcing, but in opener's major is forcing.


PART VII - DEFENSIVE BIDDING

1.

TWO SUITER HANDS 5 - 5 (3rd and 4th position)

   Legend: SAPV (Strength as per vulnerability)
   weak:    6-11, Non-vul vs Vul
   Normal:  13-15, equal vulnerability
   Strong:  16+, Vul vs Non-vul

   Jump to 2NT or                Two lowest suits, SAPV
   2NT on 1NT

   Jump to 3C on 1D/1H/1S   Two remaining suits, SAPV

   Jump to 2D on 1C             Two major suits, SAPV

   Cue bid on 1D/1H/1S         Two extreme suits, SAPV

   2C on 1C                         8+, good 6 carder suit, rule of 2 & 3

   Jump to 3C on 1C             Two extreme suits, SAPV
(cue bid)

   If strength does not match SAPV calls above, the two suits are bid in a
   natural manner. Partner bids naturally showing preference in two suits with a
   jump or cue bid if in game zone.

2.

OTHER OVERCALLS: (2nd Position)

                                       Partner's bids
   1 over 1: 8+, good five carder        Natural

                                                    Cue bid shows 12+ and asks for stopper

                                                    Jump in new suit shows semi-solid six
                                                    carder, 12+

   2 over 1: 8+ good 6 carder            Same as above, rule of 2 and 3

   1NT  or 2NT on opening of             2C stayman
   2C/2D/2H/2S: 16-18 with
   stopper
                                         2H/2S signoff

 Cue bid asking for second stopper
 failing which suit

                                         Jump to 3 in a suit, six carder suit
 headed with two honors, nothing else
 in hand

    Two suiter calls SAPV                Simple preference to play
                                                      Jump or cue bid forcing
   

    Jump in a new suit, semi-solid    Raise, non-forcing
    six carder, SAPV (ITEM 1)               Jump or cue bid forcing

    Double on strong 1C: 16+             Jump or 1NT with 8+
 
    Double, 13+, 3 card support in       Pass at 1 level 9+, five carder good
    each remaining suit, max double-     same suit as opener asking doubler to
    ton in opener's suit or 16+, 3       lead the suit to force opener to play
    card support not necessary           in NT

 Pass at 2 level, 10+, min. 4 cards in
 opener's suit with two winners in that
 suit

 Simple bid after which if doubler bids
 again, he shows 16+

 Jump in a suit, 10+, min 4 carder

 Cue bid 12+, asking for stopper

    Double followed by 1NT             2C stayman
    19-21 with a stopper                 2H/2S signoff
 Cue bid, 6+
 Jump in a new suit, 6+ forcing
   
    Double followed by jump or           Natural
    cue bid 21+


    Summary
    -------
    i) Double of a suit call shows hand of same strength as opener's with min.
       3 card support in remaining suits. Jump by partner shows 10+, cue bid
       shows 12+. If partner responds without jump, doubler must pass with
       13-15, but may take another bid with 16_, jump or cue bid with 19+. If
       16+, 3 card support in remaining suits is not necessary.
   ii) Simple 1NT/2NT overcall shows 16-18 with a stopper, but if initial
       double, it shows 19-21 with a stopper.
  iii) Special bids for two suiters are used specifying strength of the hand. If
       the strength does not fit in the specified calls, hand is bid in a
       natural fashion.
   iv) Simple 1 over 1 over calls shows good five carder suit while 2 over 1
       shows 8+, with very good six carder suit
    v) Jump in a new suit shows semi-solid six carder suit, strength varying
       according to vulnerability.

3.

OTHER OVERCALLS: Fourth position, BALANCING when RHO has passed

                                                Partner's bid

   1 over 1: 8+ good five carder     Pass with less than 11
                                                Suit, raise: 11+
     Jump or cue bid: 13+

   1NT: 8-10 with a stopper          2C Stayman
   2NT without jump (10-11 with      Others natural
   stopper

   2 over 1: 8+, good six carder     Same as 1 over 1
   rule of 2 and 3

   Double: 11+, min. 3 card support   Pass 11+, good five card same suit as
   in remaining suits, maximum         opener.
   doubleton in opener's suit. With
   13+,take second bid in next round  1NT: 8 - 11 with stopper
          Jump, Cue bid, 13+

   Jump in a new suit:  semi-        Natural
   solid six carder, SAPV

   2C on 1NT asking for preference   2D: Preference for H
   in majors 11+                     2H: Preference for S

PART VIII - LEADS

1.

Principles

   - lower of the touching honors unless lead is from top of sequence against
     NT contract, in which case lead top of sequence

   - K from three honors unless it is AK doubleton
   - A from AK
   - 10 from J10xx or broken sequence
   - 3rd best from even number of cards and lowest from odd number of cards

2.

Leads

   Lead                    From
   ----                      ----
   A                         AKx
   K                         AK, AKQ, KQJ, KQ10
   Q                         KQx, Qx, QJ10, QJ9 against NT
   J                          QJx, Jx, J10, J109, J108 against NT
   10                        J10x, 10x, A109, K109, Q109, 1098, J108 against NT
   9                          109x, 9x
   3rd best                 Even number of cards, Rule of 12
   lowest                   odd number of cards, Rule of 10

   OR
                               3 cards with an honor (A,K,Q,J or 10)
   MUD                      3 cards without an honor
                               (Middle, Up, Down: MUD)

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