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ACBL Duplicate Laws
Chapter 1 - Definitions

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Definitions

Adjusted Score
An arbitrary score awarded by the Director (see Law 12 ). It is either "artificial'' or "assigned''.
1. An artificial adjusted score is one awarded in lieu of a result because no result can be obtained or estimated for a particular deal (e.g., when an irregularity prevents play of a deal).
2. An assigned adjusted score is awarded to one side, or to both sides, to be the result of the deal in place of the result actually obtained after an irregularity.

 

Alert
A notification, whose form may be specified by a sponsoring organization, to the effect that opponents may be in need of an explanation.

 

Auction
1. The process of determining the contract by means of successive calls.
2. The aggregate of calls made (see Law 17E).

 

Bid
An undertaking to win at least a specified number of odd tricks in a specified denomination.

 

Board
1. A duplicate board as described in Law 2 .
2. The four hands as originally dealt and placed in a duplicate board for play during that session.

 

Call
Any bid, double, redouble or pass.

 

Contestant
In an individual event, a player; in a pair event, two players playing as partners throughout the event; in a team event, four or more players playing as teammates.

 

Contract
The undertaking by declarer's side to win, at the denomination named, the number of odd tricks specified in the final bid, whether undoubled, doubled, or redoubled.

 

Convention 
1. A call that, by partnership agreement, conveys a meaning other than willingness to play in the denomination named (or in the last denomination named), or high-card strength or length (three cards or more) there. However, an agreement as to overall strength does not make a call a convention.
2. Defender's play that serves to convey a meaning by agreement rather than inference.

 

Deal
1. The distribution of the pack to form the hands of the four players.
2. The cards so distributed considered as a unit, including the auction and play thereof.

 

Declarer
The player who, for the side that makes the final bid, first bid the denomination named in that bid. He becomes declarer when the opening lead is faced (but see Law 54A when the opening lead is made out of turn).

 

Defender
An opponent of (presumed) declarer.

 

Denomination
The suit or notrump specified in a bid.

 

Director
A person designated to supervise a duplicate bridge contest and to apply these Laws.

 

Double
A call over an opponent's bid increasing the scoring value of fulfilled or defeated contracts (see Law 19 and Law 77).

 

Dummy
1. Declarer's partner. He becomes dummy when the opening lead is faced.
2. Declarer's partner's cards, once they are spread on the table after the opening lead.

 

Event
A contest of one or more sessions.

 

Follow Suit
Play a card of the suit that has been led.

 

Game
100 or more trick points scored on one deal.

 

Hand
The cards originally dealt to a player, or the remaining portion thereof.

 

Honor
Any Ace, King, Queen, Jack or 10.

 

International Matchpoint (IMP)
A unit of scoring awarded according to a schedule established in Law 78B .

 

Irregularity
A deviation from the correct procedures set forth in the Laws.

 

Lead
The first card played to a trick.

 

LHO
Left-hand opponent.

 

Matchpoint
A unit of scoring awarded to a contestant as a result of comparison with one or more other scores.

 

Odd Trick
Each trick to be won by declarer's side in excess of six.

 

Opening Lead
The card led to the first trick.

 

Opponent
A player of the other side; a member of the partnership to which one is opposed.

 

Overtrick
Each trick won by declarer's side in excess of the contract.

 

Pack
The 52 playing cards with which the game of Contract Bridge is played.

 

Partner
The player with whom one plays as a side against the other two players.

 

Partscore
90 or fewer trick points scored on one deal.

 

Pass
A call specifying that a player does not, at that turn, elect to bid, double or redouble.

 

Play
1. The contribution of a card from one's hand to a trick, including the first card, which is the lead.
2. The aggregate of plays made.
3. The period during which the cards are played.
4. The aggregate of the calls and plays on a board.

 

Premium Points
Any points earned other than trick points (see Law 77).

 

Psychic Call
A deliberate and gross misstatement of honor strength or suit length.

 

Rectification
Adjustment made to permit the auction or play to proceed as normally as possible after an irregularity has occurred.

 

Redouble
A call over an opponent's double, increasing the scoring value of fulfilled or defeated contracts (see Law 19 and Law 77).

 

Revoke
The play of a card of another suit by a player who is able to follow suit or to comply with a lead penalty.

 

RHO
Right-hand opponent.

 

Rotation
The clockwise order in which the deal and the right to call or play progresses.

 

Round
A part of a session played without progression of players.

 

Session
An extended period of play during which a number of boards, specified by the sponsoring organization, is scheduled to be played.

 

Side
Two players who constitute a partnership against the other two players.

 

Slam
A contract to win six odd tricks (called Small Slam) or to win seven odd tricks (called Grand Slam).

 

Suit
One of four groups of cards in the pack, each group comprising thirteen cards and having a characteristic symbol: spades (S), hearts (H), diamonds (D), clubs (C).

 

Team
Two or more pairs playing in different directions at different tables, but for a common score (applicable regulations may permit teams of more than four members).

 

Trick
The unit by which the outcome of the contract is determined, regularly consisting of four cards, one contributed by each player in rotation, beginning with the lead.

 

Trick Points
Points scored by declarer's side for fulfilling the contract (see Law 77).

 

Trump
Each card of the suit, if any, named in the contract.

 

Turn
The correct time at which a player may call or play.

 

Undertrick
Each trick by which declarer's side falls short of fulfilling the contract (see Law 77).

 

Vulnerability
The conditions for assigning premiums and undertrick penalties (see Law 77).
 

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