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Glossary of Bridge Conventions: A-M

A B C D E F G H I J K L M
N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Go to Glossary Conventions N-Z
 Bidding     Duplicate     General     Play     Jargon     Rubber
 
 

Also see Systems - 2/1Bridge World Standard, ACOL, Eastern Scientific, Goren, Italian Blue Club, Kaplan-Sheinwold (KS), Moscito, Precision, RomanWalsh, Standard American Yellow Card (SAYC).

Convention Card Editors, Convention Cards, and Convention Charts
 

A

Play

Ace from Ace King - A popular opening-lead agreement to show partner holding of at least Ace, King, and another card in a given suit.
 

Bidding

Ace Asking Bids - Also see books on Slam and other slam conventions: 1430, Baby Blackwood, Blackwood, Controls, Exclusion Blackwood/Voidwood, Gerber, Grand Slam Force, Jacoby 2 Notrump, Key Card Blackwood, Kickback, Last Train,  NAMYATS, Pick a Slam, Quantitative Notrump Bid, Rolling Blackwood, Serious 3 Notrump, Slam Try - Stayman, Splinters, Opener Jump Shift, Strong Jump Shift, and legacy treatments as Roman Asking Bids, Roman BlackwoodRoman Gerber.  Slam treatments also include interference of an overcall by opponents, as Negative Slam Double, DOPI, DEPO, ROPI.
 

Bidding

Ace Identification - A treatment used in slam conventions to determine Aces held in a given suit by the responder, typically involving cuebidding controls.
 

Play

Ace Lead - Usually when opponents are in Notrump, a lead of Ace from a long running Suit as A K J 10 x, asking partner to play a high card to unblock the suit.
 

Bidding

Ace Showing - A treatment used by responder to show whether a specific Ace or Aces are held.  See Controls.
 

 

Bidding

Aces Scientific System - A methodology used by Bobby Goldman and Mike Lawrence of the "Aces Team."   Originally, founder Ira Corn tried to invoke a single system used by the entire Aces Team.  Eventually the Aces convinced Ira that each pair should be able to use their own system, leading to individual partnership systems.  In addition to the Aces Scientific System, others included the "Orange Club" by Wolff and Jacoby, the "Black Club" by Hamman and Eisenberg.  See Systems
 

Bidding

Acol - A British system using a natural bidding approach with four-card majors, Weak or Split Notrump openings, and Limit Raises.  See Details

Also see ACOL Bridge Books
 

Bidding

Acol 2 Bid - A strong (forcing) opening bid, likely showing distributional strength.  See Details
 


Bidding

Acol 3 Notrump - An opening bid of 3 Notrump, holding a long, solid suit with stoppers in at least two of three remaining suits (typically 16-21 points.  Note: this method uses a different criteria than the Gambling 3 Notrump.  See Details
 

Bidding

Acol 4 Notrump Opening - A opening bid asking (forcing) partner to show Aces.  See Details
 

Bidding

Advance Cuebid - A control-showing Cuebid made prior to a suit agreement by the partnership. See Example
 

Bidding

Advanced Lebensohl - An addition to Lebensohl when opponent's interfere with a 1 Notrump opener.  Responder bids from 2 Notrump through 3 Hearts show transfer hands with invitational values.  Opener signs off by accepting transfer or bids a new suit to force game. See Lebensohl
 

Play

Alarm Clock Leads - Referring to defensive leads.  This shows an unusual lead which warns partner the of a dangerous situation, such as early ruffing by declarer.
 

Play

All Purpose Cuebid - The generalized approach by responder (or advancer) that the forcing cuebid of opponent's suit enquires partner for additional information.  See Details
 

Bidding

Alpha Cuebid (Support Asking Bid) - A control asking structure associated with the Precision bidding system, used to explore a trump fit.  See Details
 

Bidding

Ambiguous Splinters - See Concealed Splinters
 


Play

American Leads - A lead methodology giving partner a count when holding a long unbroken suit. A suit lead of a Jack followed by the Queen showed a solid seven-card suit. Improved lead techniques made American Leads obsolete.
 

Bidding

Amsterdam Club System - A variation of the "Big Club" system of bidding used in the Netherlands.  See Systems
 

Bidding

Anti Splinter Bids - Responsive bids to partner's major suit opening that deny a holding a short suit as singletons or voids.  See Splinter Bids
 

Bidding

Aspro - An English variation of the Astro Convention, named after a brand of their aspirin.  See Details
 

Bidding

Astro - A defensive bidding system against opponents 1 Notrump opening bid.  See Details
 

Play

Attitude - A signal meant to encourage/discourage continuation of partner's suit lead, based on the rank of the card played.  In Standard Attitude, a high card encourages continuance and a low card discourages continuance of the suit led.   Using Upside Down Count and Attitude (UDCA), the reverse methodology is used.  Also see Smith Echo
 

Bidding

Autosplinter - A call that indicates both length in one suit and either a singleton or void in another suit.
 

B


 


 

 

Bidding

Baby Blackwood - The use of 3 Notrump bid to ask partner the number of Aces held after the side has found a suit fit.  Since Baby Blackwood corresponds to the dated forcing jump raise, other methods as Jacoby 2 Notrump are more commonly used.  Also see books on Slam and other slam conventions: 1430, Baby Blackwood, Blackwood, Controls, Exclusion Blackwood/Voidwood, Gerber, Grand Slam Force, Jacoby 2 Notrump, Key Card Blackwood, Kickback, Last Train,  NAMYATS, Pick a Slam, Quantitative Notrump Bid, Rolling Blackwood, Serious 3 Notrump, Slam Try - Stayman, Splinters, Opener Jump Shift, Strong Jump Shift, and legacy treatments as Roman Asking Bids, Roman BlackwoodRoman Gerber.  Slam treatments also include interference of an overcall by opponents, as Negative Slam Double, DOPI, DEPO, ROPI.
 

Bidding

Balancing In Direct Seat - To make a competitive bid in the direct (as opposed to passout) seat, where opponents are both bidding.  See OBAR BIDS
 

Bidding

Baron Response to 1 Notrump - In response to opener's 1 Notrump bid, responder's 2 Notrump call is artificial showing 33+ cumulative points between both hand, exploring the best slam.  See Details
 

Bidding

Baron 1 Notrump Overcall - A somewhat unusual application for Baron is an overcall of 1 Notrump after an opponent's 1 level suit bid as a weak takeout call.  See Details
 


Bidding

Baron System - An British system, including features as: weak Notrump opening; bidding "up-the-line" to show a four-card suit; lead of Ace from Ace-King; bidding one below the agreed-upon suit to invite slam; a 2 Notrump response to invite slam.
 

 

Bidding

Bart - An artificial 2 Diamond rebid by responder implying five Hearts in the sequence:

1S - 1NT;        *1NT is Forcing or Semi-forcing
2C - 2D;

See Details
 

Bidding

Becker - A defensive bidding strategy against opponent's 1 Notrump openings showing a two-suited hand.  See Details
 

Bidding

Benjamin - A preemptive system used by ACOL players, where an opening bid of 2 Hearts or 2 Spades shows a weak Hand. Conversely, 2 Diamonds indicates a near game-force and 2 Clubs promises a long running suit to be revealed on opener's next bid.  See Details
 


Bidding

Bergen Drury - Commonly known as Two Way Reverse Drury, an addition to the Reverse Drury where 2 Clubs shows 10-11 points with three in partner's major suit and 2 Diamonds shows 10-11 points and four trump. See Details
 

Bidding

Bergen Over Notrump - A method to show either a one or two-suited hand by interfering at the 2 level over opponent's 1 Notrump opening bid.  See DONT
 

Bidding

Bergen Raises - A strategic system of responses to partner's major suit opening bid showing 3 or 4-card trump support, providing both a constructive and preemptive basis:  Details
 

Bidding

Bergen Raise Of Major After Double (BROMAD) - Useful when opponent makes a double after partner's major suit opening.  After the auction begins: 1S - (X) - ?   Details

Also see Books on Doubles
 

 

Bidding

Bergen Redouble Over Notrump - A method to show opening 1 Notrump partner assurance of a solid Contract when intervening opponent doubles to show a one-suited or two-suited hand.  Example: 1N - (X) - XX  shows 6-7 points.  Conversely, when responder does not redouble, making a 1 Notrump Contract is doubtful.  However, if opponent's Double was penalty-oriented, then Responder's calls follow the DONT Convention.  Details

Also see Books on Doubles
 

Bidding

Beta Cuebid - A control asking structure associated with the Precision bidding system, used without a strong suit fit.  See Details
 


Bidding

Big Club - Systems using the 1 Club System include: Bangkok Club, Italian Blue Club, Canary Club, Carrot Club, French Club, Little Roman, Marmic, Orange Club, Precision, Relay, Roman, Roth Club, Simplified Club, Trefle Squeeze, Vanderbilt, Vienna. See Details
 


Bidding

Big Diamond - A method similar to the Big Club system, where 1 Diamond shows unbalanced hand with at least 17 High Card Points. However, here an opening of 1 Club shows 14-16 points but not balanced (e.g., 1 Notrump).  See Details
 

 

Bidding

Blackwood - A method used to locate Aces in consideration of making a slam bid. Typically, Blackwood is used when either partner realizes partnership has a combined strength to explore slam and a good suit fit is found.  In response to a bid of 4 Notrump (Blackwood) , the responder makes a conventional call according to number of Aces held.  See Details
 

Play

Blue Peter - A term dating back to the days of Whist, based on high-low discarding. The name is derived from the nautical signal to show a ship is preparing to sail.
 

Bidding

Blue Team Club - A strong Club system used by the Italian "Blue Team" which helped them win numerous major championships. See Italian Blue Club
 

Bidding

Blue Team 2 Diamonds - An initial bid showing 17-24 points, with a 4-4-4-1 distribution.
 

 

Bidding

BOSTON - The abbreviation for "Bottom Of Something, Top Of Nothing", referring to partnership lead agreements.  Thus, a lead of a low card promises partner a useful honor in the suit led (Bottom of Something".  The lead of a high or middle card warns partner the leader cannot provide help in the suit lead (Top Of Nothing), asking partner to consider switching to another suit.

Also see Details on signaling and books on Signals
 

Bidding

BROMAD - See Bergen Raise Of Major After Double.
 

Bidding

Brozel - A defensive method against Opponent's 1 Notrump opening bid, focusing on the Majors.  See Details
 

Bidding

Bypass Diamonds - After partner opens 1 Club, some prefer to bid a four card major first, denying length in Diamonds.  See Walsh Diamond
 

Bidding

Byzantine Blackwood - A complex variation of Key-Card Blackwood, which uses arcane responses somewhat similar to Roman Blackwood.
 

C


 


Bidding

CAB - Control Asking Bid, an acronym associated with "Big Club" (Precision) and similar systems.  The convention, typically used in a game forcing auction subsequent to a Trump Asking Bid (TAB) or Ace Asking Bid (AAB), queries partner for the primary honors in a given suit.  See Details
 

Bidding

California Cue Bid - A bid in opponents' suit requesting partner to bid Notrump with a stopper in the given suit (same as Western Cuebid)
 


Bidding

Canape - A bidding treatment where Opener and Responder bid short suits before disclosing their long suit, when both hands are strong enough to bid two suits.  Opener's bid may be a short suit with as few as 3 cards, either a minor or major.  See Details
 

Bidding

Cappelletti - A defensive bidding system against opponents 1 Notrump opening bid (often called Hamilton in the Western United States, or Pottage in England).  See Details
 

Play

Carding - Partnership defensive agreements including Leads, Attitude, Count, and Suit Preference.  See Details and Convention Card Instructions.
 

 


Bidding

Cheaper Minor Second Negative - After an initial negative bid in response to partner's strong opening bid, a new bid in a minor (or lowest suit) confirms a weak hand.  Examples:

2C - 2D;
2S - 3C;

2C - 2D;
3C - 3D;

2C - 2D;
3D - 3H;

 

Bidding

Checkback Stayman - A method similar to the New Minor Forcing convention for responder to determine if opener is holding a 4-card major or 3-cards in responders bid suit.  See Details
 

 

 


Jargon

Chicago Convention - A illegal (tongue-in-cheek) convention used against one's opponents to claim a fouled hand.  For instance, while playing Rubber Bridge one dishonest player picks up a hand without values and through prior secret agreement, recites a phrase such as, "How is your Aunt in Chicago?"  Partner may reply with a coded negative phrase as, "She died last week."  (meaning both players have bad hands)  One conspirator will then say, "I only have only 12 cards," to which the other conspirator will say, "and I have 14 cards!"  The players then quickly throw their cards together on the table so their opponents' are unaware of the treachery.  Also known as the 12-14 Convention.
 

Bidding

Chico 2 Diamonds - A modified version of the Multi 2 Diamond bid where an opening bid of 2D shows either a weak 2 in a major suit or a strong hand (20+ High Card Points) with a 4-4-4-1 or 5-4-4-0 distribution.  Also see Multi 2 Diamonds
 

Bidding
Choice of Game Cuebid - See Details and Cuebids
 

 

Bidding

Club Conventions - Many opening 1 Club bidding systems are commonly used.  Many players consider 1 Club a "convenient minor", a suit which may be as short as 3 cards or less.  To show a strong hand, a common treatment is the 2 Club opening hand.  A different approach was the Vanderbilt Club system, the original strong Club convention.  In 1969, Benito Garozzo and Leon Yallouze co-authored a variation called the "Blue Club" system, used by the the Italian Blue Team to win numerous world championship events; see Italian Blue Club.  Popular offshoots of the strong 1 Club system include the Precision system.  See Precision.

Also see Precision/Big Club Books
 

Bidding

Clubs For Takeout - A takeout bid made using Clubs as a convention instead of a Double. Using this treatment, bidding in opponent's Club suit still has the characteristics of a Takeout Double.
 

Bidding

Coded 9 and 10 - An opening lead system designed to show honor holdings.  A lead of a 9 or 10 implies either zero or two higher honors in the suit led, while leading a Jack suggests no higher honors.  See Details

Also see Details on signaling and books on Leads
 

Bidding

Cole - After a one level opening bid, an artificial 2 Club rebid showing a several types of hands, including a minimum raise of responder's suit with three-card support.
 

Bidding

Colorful Cuebid - A direct bid of opponent's major suit, showing a long holding in the other colors.  See Details
 

Bidding

Comic Notrump Overcall - A 1 Notrump overcall showing a weak hand with a long suit. Partner makes a "puppet" bid of 2 Clubs, allowing 1 Notrump overcaller to name the long suit.
 

Bidding

Competitive Double - A Double without specific features but indicating useful values, as opposed to a Takeout or Penalty Double.

Also see Books on Doubles
 

 

Bidding

Concealed Splinter - An artificial ambiguous bid used to signify a singleton or void along with 4 or more trump in partner's major suit.  This allows the opener to choose between signing off in a major game with poor values; with slam prospects, opener typically makes an artificial asking bid of the cheapest available suit (next suit above responder's artificial bid) to identify the specific short suit.  Systems like the original Bergen Raise convention use concealed splinters.
 

 

Bidding

Constructive Raise - A single raise of partner's major suit, indicating above minimal strength (usually 8-10 points) and suggesting game exploration; responder's constructive bid is not forcing.  With a minimum hand, responder makes a Forcing Notrump bid followed by a 2 level raise of opener's major suit.  Systems like the original Bergen Raise convention use Constructive Raises.
 

Play

Controls - Artificial bids used to inquire or show attributes of one's holdings.  See Details
 

 

Duplicate

 

Laws

Convention Card - A document briefly describing partnership understandings.  While partners maintain and study their Convention Card before a duplicate event, players are only permitted to view their opponents Convention Cards during actual bidding and play at the table. See Details

  Examination of own card prohibited - See Law 40
Regulation by sponsoring organization - See Law 40
Timing of reference to opponent's card - See Law 40
 


Duplicate

Laws

Convention Charts - At any ACBL Tournament it is the responsibility of the participants to know which convention chart is in force for the event they are playing in. The ACBL has four such charts: Limited, General, Mid & Superchart.  See Details
 

Bidding

Cooperative Double - A Double requesting partner to determine if it is more advantageous to compete through further bidding, or Passing for penalty.  See Doubles

Also see Books on Doubles
 

Play

Count - Standard count uses a high-low signal showing a even number of cards, first discarding a higher card and subsequently discarding a lower card.  See Details and Details on signaling
 


Bidding

CRASH - The acronym C RA SH refers to a hand with a two-suited suited shape.  These hands have one of three different shapes, defined by the letters of CRASH:  first step = same Color, second step = same RAnk, third step = same SHape.  See Details
 

Bidding

Crawling Stayman -  A special treatment of the traditional Stayman, useful when the Responder holds 0-7 points with at least 4 cards in the major suits and a short Diamond suit.  See Example
 


Bidding

Criss Cross Raise - Also known as the Criss Cross Jump Shift or Crossover, a convention to address minor suit openings when responder has a invitation values (some play game forcing) and no 4 card major.  See Details
 

Bidding

Crossover Raise - See Criss Cross Raise.
 

Bidding

Crowhurst - A Stayman-like rebid of 2 Club with 9+ points, in response to partner's 1 Notrump rebid showing 12-16 points.  See Details
 


Bidding

Cuebid - A forcing bid in a suit which bidder does not wish to play. Among the many uses for cuebids are: Limit+ Raise, Western Cuebid, Eastern Cuebid, Control Showing, Michaels Cuebid, Splinter Bids, Choice of Game Cuebid, All Purpose, etc.  See Details
 


Bidding

Cuebid Double  - An alternative to Responsive Double, the Cuebid Double used to convey the meaning that Right Hand Opponent has "stole" the player's intended cuebid.  See Details

Also see Books on Doubles
 

D
 
Play

Defensive Carding - Partnership defensive agreements including Leads, Attitude, Count, and Suit Preference.  Also see Details and Convention Card Instructions.
 


Play

Defensive Play - Leads, plays, signals, and discarding tactics used to minimize the tricks won by the declarer.  See Attitude, Suit Preference, Opening Leads, Passive Lead, Trump Lead, Active Defense, Carding, and Conventions
 

Bidding

Delta - A system based on weak opening bids.
 


Bidding
Delta Asking Bid - A control asking structure associated with "Big Club" (Precision) and similar systems.  The convention, typically used in a game forcing auction after the Big Club opener makes a jump bid response (bypassing other possible asking bids by responder), asks responder to cuebid Aces up the line.  See Details
 
Bidding

DEPO - An acronym Double Even, Pass Odd, used to indicate Aces or keycards when an opponent has interfered with a slam-asking sequence as Gerber or Blackwood.  See Details
 

Bidding

DONT - A defensive bidding system against opponent's 1 Notrump opening bid, whose acronym is Disturbing Opener's Notrump opening bid.  See Details
 

Bidding

DOPI - An acronym for Double Zero, Pass One, used to indicate Aces or Key Cards when an opponent has interfered with a slam-asking sequence as Gerber or Blackwood.  See Details
 

Bidding

Double - In addition to the traditional use of the Double for penalties, many conventions are associated with Doubles in various scenarios.   See Details and Convention Card Instructions, Books on Doubles
 

Bidding

Double Barreled Stayman - A combination of the Non-Forcing and Game-Forcing Stayman.  See Details
 


Bidding

Double Jump Overcall -  Typically played as preemptive jump bid over an opponent's bid, as:

(1D) - 3S
 

Bidding

Double Key Card - A variation of Key Card Blackwood, where Kings of two suits are counted towards the keycard response.
 

Bidding

Double Negative - Often used by responder after opener's strong 2 Club bid, the second negative call indicates less than 3 points.  See Cheaper Minor Second Negative.
 

Bidding

Double of a Cuebid - A Double of opponent's cuebid at a high-level Auction may be intended to be a Lead-Directing Double, although it may prescribe a lead of another suit.  See Details

Also see Books on Doubles
 

 


Bidding

Double Raise - A Skip or Jump bid in partner's suit, two levels higher than partner bid as:

     1H - 3H

Typically, Double Raises are played as an invitational limit raise (historically a game forcing raise), while some treat it as a weak preemptive bid showing 4 card support (see Bergen Raise)
 

Bidding

Drop Dead Stayman (Garbage Stayman) - An artificial treatment by Responder after Opener bids 1 Notrump.  The Responder bids 2C, planning to Pass any bid by Opener.  See Details
 

 

Bidding

Drury - A method where Responder rebids 2 Clubs after an initial Pass to explore game when one partner opens a Major Suit in third (perhaps fourth) seat possibly with light values and other partner is holding game invitational values.  Due to its popularity, several variations of the Drury convention are in use.  See Details
 


Bidding

Dutch Spade - A three-suited transfer system introduced in the 1982 World Pairs. Opening with a Pass bid shows a Club Suit; 1 Club show a Diamond Suit; bidding 1 Diamond show Hearts; a bid of 1 Heart shows Spades, 1 Spade is a "catch-all", showing 0-10 points.
 

Bidding

Dynamic 1 Notrump - An integral method in the Romex System used to show an unbalanced hand with 18-21 points, 5+ controls (Ace = 2, King = 1), and 4-5 losers.  See Details
 

E
 
Bidding
Eastern Cuebid - A bid in opponent's suit used to show a stopper, anticipating partner may chose to call Notrump.  Conversely, other players prefer to play Western Cuebid,  which asks for a stopper.  Also see Cuebids
 
Bidding

Eastern Scientific - Referring to a bidding style that relies on a more complex style of bidding to quantify their holdings. See Example
 

Bidding

EHAA - The speculative system, "Every Hand An Adventure".  EHAA includes a Weak Notrump, 4-card Majors, and marginal preemptive weak 2 bids.
 


Bidding
Epsilon (Control Asking Bid) - an acronym associated with "Big Club" (Precision) and similar systems.  The convention, typically used in a game forcing auction subsequent to a Trump Asking Bid (TAB) or Ace Asking Bid (AAB), queries partner for the primary honors in a given suit.  See Details
 

Bidding
Equal Level Conversion Doubles (ELCD) - When the partnership agree to play Equal Level Conversion Doubles (ELCD), the doubler is allowed to have shortness in the Club suit - provided the overcalling doubler has 5 Diamond.  This allows the doubler to rebid Diamonds when partner (advancer) responds in the Club suit - overcaller's short suit.  See Details
 
Bidding

Escape (Runout) - After an opponent's penalty double, typically a Redouble is a plea to partner asking to find a better final auction. See Exodus, Moscow Escape, Pre-Escape
 


Bidding

Exclusion Blackwood/Key-Card Blackwood (Voidwood) - A slam-related Jump bid after partner's have found a trump fit.  The Jump Suit shows a void, similar to a Splinter bid and invites partner to bid slam.  See Details
 

Bidding

Exodus - An escape mechanism using the Redouble when opponent's attempt to penalize partner's 1 Notrump opening bid.  See Details, Moscow Escape, Pre-Escape
 

F


 

Bidding

Fit Showing Jump - A skip bid showing suit length in both partner's suit as well as the bid suit of the jump.  See See Mixed Raises
 

 

Bidding

Flannery 2 Diamonds - An opening bid of 2 Diamonds shows an opening hand (11-15 points) with 4 Spades and 5 Hearts.  The Flannery bid was developed to allow a 4-5 major suit distribution without making an initial call of 1 Heart, followed by opener's rebid of 2 Spades (when play 16+ point Reverses).  See Details
 


Bidding

Flip Flop - To preemptively reverse the meaning of 2 Notrump and a Jump Raise when partner opens in a minor Suit and Opponent's Call is a Double.  Thus, a response of 2 Notrump is preemptive and 3 in a minor is invitational.  See Details
 

 

Play

Forcing Notrump - A conventional response of 1 Notrump to partner's major suit opening, requiring further description of opener's hand.  The Forcing Notrump Call is a cornerstone of the 2/1 system, usually showing a range of 6-12 points; this treatment is necessary to cover Responder's 10-12 point range, where a two-level response would be game-forcing.  See Details and the book

Understanding 1NT Forcing
 

Bidding

Forcing Stayman - A Stayman bid followed by a major suit rebid, forcing 1 Notrump opener to further describe hand.  See Details
 

Bidding

Foster Echo - A lead carding method to show count against opponent's Notrump Contract as well as attempt to unblock the leader's suit.  See Details
 


Bidding

Four Aces System - Dating back to the 1930's, a system including: Weak Notrump opening, convenient minor suit opening bids, Weak Jump Overcalls, Psychic Bids with only strength in bid suit by third hand and occasionally first hand.
 

Bidding

4 Club Conventions - Several conventions use an opening bid of 4 Clubs, including popular treatments as: Gerber, NAMYATS, and South African Texas.
 

Bidding

4 Notrump Overcall - After opponent's bidding, a call of 4 Notrump shows at least 5 cards in the minor suits.  See Unusual Notrump.
 

Bidding

Four Suit Transfers - An adaptation of Jacoby Transfers used in response to Partner's 1 Notrump opener to request a transfer to a long minor Suit.  See Details
 

Bidding

Four Way Transfers - See Four Suit Transfers
 

Bidding

Fourteen Thirty (1430): A form of the Roman Key Card Blackwood slam convention, considering the Aces, trump King, Queen, and other attributes.  See Details
 


Play

Fourth Best Leads - A lead convention where the opening lead is the fourth card down from the top card held by the opener (top of sequence leads take precedence).  Also see, Rule of 11

Also see Details on signaling and books on Leads
 


Bidding

Fourth Suit Forcing - An artificial bid of the fourth suit, requiring partner to continue describing their hand thus conserving bidding space to explore game or slam.  The bidder may or may not have a holding in the fourth suit, making the bid artificial and alertable.  See Details.

Bidding

Furwiler - After finding a trump suit, a bid in a new suit asks partner for a control in the bid suit.  In response, partner uses a step response to disclose controls (as CAB - Control Asking Bid in Precision)
 

G


 


Bidding

Gambling 3 Notrump - An opening bid of 3 Notrump based on a long, solid minor suit.  The 3 Notrump Opener anticipates partner holds a stopper in the suit lead by the leading opponent, then running the long minor suit. See Details. Also see Acol 3 Notrump.
 


Bidding

Gamma Asking Bid (Trump Asking Bid) - the acronym associated with "Big Club" (Precision) and similar systems.  The convention, typically used in a game forcing auction with an agreed trump suit below game, queries partner for the attributes of their trump suit.  See Details
 

Bidding

Game-Force - A call that requests partner to continue bidding until game is reached.  Some players play that the bidding the fourth suit (Fourth Suit Forcing) is game-forcing.
 

Bidding

Game Try - A rebid designed to further explore a game opportunity. See Example.  Also see Help Suit Game Try. Short Suit Game Try, Long Suit Game Try, Help Suit Game Try
 

Bidding

Garbage Stayman (Drop Dead Stayman) - An artificial treatment by responder after opener bids 1 Notrump.  The responder bids 2C, planning to Pass any bid by opener.  See Details
 

Bidding

Gardener - An overcall of 1 Notrump, showing either a weak hand with a long escape suit or a strong Notrump balancing hand.
 

Duplicate

General Approach - The general systemic approach used for bidding and play.  See Convention Card Instructions
 

 

Bidding

Gerber - A slam convention using the bid of 4 Clubs to ask partner to disclose the Aces held. The most common usage of Gerber to investigate Ace "controls" is when the partnership has not found a suit fit and have bid Notrump.  Some players reserve Gerber to only include 1 or 2 Notrump opening bids, many others allow auctions where responder first bids Notrump. See Details


Bidding

Gladiator - After Opener's 1 Notrump bid, Gladiator provides a flexible treatment to explore slam, game, or signoff in part score.  Responder's minor bids are artificial, 2C begins a signoff sequence while 2D is a game forcing Stayman.  See Details
 

 

Bidding

Good Bad 2 Notrump - An artificial bid of 2 Notrump, typically when both sides are competing in a lively auction and partner has a limited hand with no interest in game.  Most commonly, the rebidder makes a raise of a previously bid suit or a new suit at the 3 level to show a stronger action than a 2 Notrump overcall above the Right Hand Opponent two-level bid.  See Example
 


Bidding

Goren System - An offshoot of the Culbertson System using high card points instead of honor tricks to evaluate one's hand.  The Goren System also used a modern version of the Standard American 5 card major system.  See Example

Also see Goren Bridge Books
 

Bidding

Grand Slam Force (GSF) - With a known fit, a jump bid of 5 Notrump may be used to enquire about partner's top three trump honor.  With 2 or more trump controls, responder makes a Grand Slam call in the trump suit.  Otherwise, the responder signs off in a Small Slam.  See Details
 

H


 

Bidding

Hackett - A defensive system used against opponent's weak 2 preemptive bidding.  Overcaller's artificial bids are 3C showing less than 16 points and 3D showing 16 or more points.
 

Bidding

Hamilton - A defensive bidding system against opponents 1 Notrump opening bid (often called Cappelletti in the Eastern United States, or Pottage in England).  See Details
 


Bidding

Help Suit Game Try (Two Way Game Try) - After Opener makes a major suit bid and responder raises the suit, the use of both short suit and long suit game tries to discover possible game fits. See Help Suit (Two Way Game Try.  Also see Game Try, Short Suit Game Try, Long Suit Game Try, Help Suit Game Try
 

Bidding

Herbert Negative - A negative response using the cheapest available suit, attributable to Walter Herbert.
 

Bidding

High Gerber (Super Gerber) - See Super Gerber.
 

 

Bidding

High Low Signal - Typically associated with standard suit attitude, first discarding a higher card and subsequently discarding a lower card encourages continuation of the suit.  Some players use high-low signals to indicate the number of cards held in a given suit.  See Standard Attitude. Also see Upside Down Count and Attitude (UDCA), Smith Echo, Carding and  Convention Card Instructions
 


Bidding

High Reverse - A non-jump reverse used to indicate a strong hand.  A high-reverse bid is made by making a three-level bid in a lower suit than the original bid, after partner or opponent's two-level response.  See Details
 

I


 

 


Bidding

IDAK or IDAC - A defensive bidding system against strong artificial club sequences. IDAK is an acronym for Instant Destroyer And Killer, and IDAC is an acronym for Instant Destruction Against a Club. If the partnership is not vulnerable, then IDAK or IDAC is used. If the partnership is vulnerable, then Wonder Bids are applied.  These bids, originally created by the Crossley brothers, have not found their way into the mainstream.
 

Bidding

Impossible Negative - A 1D negative response to a strong 1C opening call, used when the responder has good values but a three-suited hand.
 

Bidding

Intermediate Jump Overcall - A skip bid over opponents Call, showing at least an opening hand and a solid six card suit.
 

Bidding

Inverted Minors - The weak jump response of partner's minor suit bid, used as a preemptive tactic against opponents.  See Details
 

Bidding

Invisible Cuebid - Also known as a virtual cuebid, a bid in the opponent's implied, but not bid, suit.  See Details
 


Bidding

Italian Cuebidding - After finding a game forcing fit, systems such as 2/1 typically cuebid Aces or voids to show controls.   Using Italian Cuebids, the partnership may also cuebid second round controls (Kings or singletons) provided the bidding level is beneath game.  Also see Controls
 

Play

Italian Discards - See Odd-Even Discard
 

J


 

Play

Jack Denies - An element of an opening lead convention "Jack denies, Ten implies."   Thus, the lead of a Jack denies holding a higher ranking honor.  See Details
 

 

Bidding

Jacoby Transfer - A popular bidding treatment to enable the Notrump Opener to become Declarer when the Responder holds five or more cards in a suit.  This allows the stronger hand to remain unexposed.  After opener bids 1, 2, or 3 Notrump, the Responder transfers to the next higher suit.  See Details

Also see Books on
Jacoby Transfers

Bidding

Jacoby 2 Notrump - After a major suit one level opening bid by partner, the conventional response of 2 Notrump shows 4+ card trump support with an opening hand and interest in slam.  See Details
 

Bidding

Jordan 2 Notrump- After partner opens and Right Hand Opponent Doubles, a 2 Notrump call by responder shows good trump support and a limit plus raise See Details.
 

Bidding

Josephine - See Grand Slam Force.
 

 

Journalist Leads - An opening lead system against opponent's Notrump contract.  See Details
 

Bidding

Jump Overcalls - Partnership strength agreements when making a jump overcall.  See Convention Card Instructions
 

K


 


Bidding

Kamikaze Notrump - A very weak 9-12 1 Notrump opening in first and second seat.  According to ACBL Laws, Kamikaze Notrump responses cannot employ conventional responses such as Stayman or Jacoby Transfers (when opening less than 10 points).
 

Bidding

Kantar 3 Notrump - Unlike the Gambling 3 Notrump with length in a minor suit, Kantar 3 Notrump is based on a long running major suit.  See Details
 

 

Bidding

Kaplan Sheinwold System - A system of bidding created by Edgar Kaplan and Alfred Scheinwold, based on opening five card major bids and a weak 1 Notrump.  The KS approach follows two principles that bidding sequences should have precisely described meanings and, where safety permits high bids must be used to describe weaker hand and low bids to describe stronger hands.  See Details

Also see Kaplan/Sheinwold Books
 

Bidding

Kennedy Convention - The method where responder's major suit bid promises a 5 card major, as opposed to the normal method where responder's major suit bid only promises a 4 card major suit.  See Details
 

Bidding

Keycard Blackwood - A slam bidding variation from regular Blackwood, designed to increase the accuracy when considering the potential to reach slam or grandslam.  See Details


Bidding

Key Card Gerber - A slam bidding variation from regular Gerber (when trump suit has not been names), designed to increase the accuracy when considering the potential to reach slam or grandslam.   See Details
 

Bidding

Kickback - Typically used to explore slam, a variation of Roman Keycard Blackwood using one suit above four of the partnership's agreed trump suit as a keycard asking bid. See Details
 

Bidding

Kokish Relay - An refinement to opener's responses after a strong 2 Club opener.  See Details
 


Bidding

Kokish Game Try - After Opener makes a major suit bid and Responder raises the suit, the Opener (with 6 Losing Trick Count) may use a combination of  both short suit and asking game try to discover possible game fits. See Kokish Game Try.  Also see Game Try, Short Suit Game Try, Long Suit Game Try, Help Suit Game Try
 

L


 

Bidding

Landy - An elementary form of interference over a 1 Notrump opener by the opponent.  See Details
 

Bidding

Last Train Cuebid (Squeeze Bid) - A method suggesting mild slam interest (game-plus values) after agreeing on a trump suit.  See Example
 

Bidding

Lavinthal - A discard system which uses the rank of the card signal suit preference.  See Details

Also see and Details on signaling and books on Signals
 

Bidding

Leaping Michaels - A 4 level minor suit jump or skip bid in opponent's preemptive bid to show a game forcing auction with a two-suited hand.  See Details  Also see Michaels Cuebid and Roman Jump Overcall
 

 

Bidding

Lebensohl - A comprehensive arsenal of bids designed to handle several difficult auctions, including opponent overcalls to 1 Notrump, 2 level preempts (weak 2 bids), and opener reverses  George Boehm originally attributed the convention resolving opponent's notrump interference to Ken Lebensold, who did not take credit for the convention nor relate to its spelling.  See Details, Convention Card Instructions
 


Bidding

Limit Plus Raise - A raise of partner's suit that does not have an upper point range.  Examples include a cuebid of an overcalling opponents' suit bid, the Jordan 2 Notrump convention, doubles over opponent's cuebid, and redoubles.  See Details and Cuebids
 

 

Bidding

Long Suit Game Try - After opener makes a major suit bid and responder raises the suit, the opener (with 6 Losing Trick Count) may use a long suit game try based on opener's length in a side suit.  See Details.  Also see Game Try, Help Suit Game Try, Short Suit Game Try, Help Suit Game Try
 

 

Play

Low-High Signal - Associated with standard suit attitude, first discarding a lower card and subsequently discarding a higher card discourages continuation of the suit. See Standard Attitude.  When used to show count, the low-high signal typically indicates an odd number of cards in the suit. See Standard Count.  Also see Upside Down Count and Attitude (UDCA) and Smith Echo
 

M


 

Bidding

Major Opening -  Partnership agreements for opening major and Responder strong and weak bids.  See Convention Card Instructions
 

Bidding

Marionette - A transfer, or puppet, which instructs one's partner to make an artificial bid at the cheapest level, allowing the other partner to then clarify their holdings through the subsequent bid.  See examples as Lebensohl 2 Notrump advancer bid and Kokish Relay.
 


Bidding

Marx 2 Clubs - In response to partner's opening Notrump bid, a 2C response used to inquire about partner's major suit holdings.  While the convention is usually attributable to George Rapee and Sam Stayman, Jack Marx of England originated the same convention.
 

Bidding

Mathe - An elementary defensive system against opponents' Big Club system to show a two-suited hand.  A Double indicates the major suits, while a 1 Notrump bid promises both minor suits. See Details
 

Bidding

Mathe Asking Bid - After partner makes a 3 level invitational jump raise, an artificial bid of the next higher rank used to accept game and ask partner to show a singleton or void.  See Details
 

Bidding

Maximal (Overcall) Double - When both sides have a suit agreement (Opponents Bid And Raise - OBAR in lower suit), a double invites game, while a suit bid is merely competitive. See Details and more Doubles

Also see Books on Doubles
 

Bidding

McCabe Adjunct - After Opener's preemptive weak 2 bid, McCabe provides a mechanism to differentiate signoff 3 level bids in a new suit, and various invitational game asking bids.  See Details
 

Bidding

Mexican 2 Diamonds - An opening bid of 2 Diamonds showing 19-21 HCP (4-6 losers) with a balanced hand, created by George Rosenkranz in his Romex System.
 

Bidding

Michaels Cuebid - A cuebid of opponents' 1 level opening bid, indicating a two-suited hand.  See Details  Also see Leaping Michaels and Cuebids
 

Bidding

Miles Responses to 2 Notrump Openings - A series of bids in response to opener's 2 Notrump bid. See Details
 

Bidding

Mini Max Gerber - Advanced players use "keycard" responses instead of the traditional "Blackwood-like responses" (0314 or 1430).  Extending the responses, the third step shows minimum hand with the fourth step showing a maximum hand.  See Gerber.  Also see books on Slam and other slam conventions: 1430, Baby Blackwood, Blackwood, Controls, Exclusion Blackwood/Voidwood, Gerber, Grand Slam Force, Jacoby 2 Notrump, Key Card Blackwood, Kickback, Last Train,  NAMYATS, Pick a Slam, Quantitative Notrump Bid, Rolling Blackwood, Serious 3 Notrump, Slam Try - Stayman, Splinters, Opener Jump Shift, Strong Jump Shift, and legacy treatments as Roman Asking Bids, Roman BlackwoodRoman Gerber.  Slam treatments also include interference of an overcall by opponents, as Negative Slam Double, DOPI, DEPO, ROPI.
 


Bidding

Mini Notrump - The common 1 Notrump range for many players is 15-17 or 16-18 High Card Points.  Thus, weak Notrump players use lower ranges for opening 1 Notrump bids, as 10-12 HCP, 11-14 HCP, and 12-14 HCP.  Also see Kamikaze Notrump
 

Bidding

Mini Roman - An opening bid of 2 Diamonds to show a 11-15 point opening hand with either a 4-4-4-1 or 5-4-4-0 distribution.  See Details
 

Bidding

Mini Splinter - A jump shift or jump reverse (by opener or responder) to show a 4 card fit, and a singleton or void in the named suit, and invitational values.  See Details
 

Bidding

Minor Opening -  Partnership agreements for opening minor and Responder strong and weak bids.  See Convention Card Instructions and Responses to One of a Minor
 


Bidding

Minor Suit Smolen - An extension to the Stayman, Jacoby Transfer, and Smolen conventions, used to explore a minor suit slam after opener's 2 Notrump opener.  Similar to the Smolen (major suit) convention, here the responder bids the complementary minor to ensure the stronger 2 Notrump opener plays the hand.  See Example
 


Bidding

Minor Suit Stayman - A next-level Spade (1N-2S or 2N-3S) response to  partner's 1 Notrump opener, showing length in the minor suits.  While the Minor Suit Stayman has many variances depending on partnership agreements, typically the 1 Notrump opener's rebid supports a minor suit with length in the respective suit.  See Details
 

 

 

Bidding

Moscito - As the acronym for its name suggests, the system is based on a Major Oriented Strong Club (MOSCito) methods created by Paul Marston and Stephen Burgess.  The methods are centered on a symmetric system of bidding while the opening side has the majority of strength, also using weak opening methods according to Jukasz Slawinski.  The objectives of the Moscito Byte include:

1.

Quickly entering the auction to find the best contract

2.

Consume opponents bidding space

3.

Efficiently investigate game and slam opportunities

See Overview
 

Bidding

Mixed Raise - A Call which has both constructive and preemptive properties. See Example
 

Bidding

Moscow Escape - Especially when playing Weak Notrump openers, a conventional countermeasure when opponent Doubles for penalty.  See Details, Pre-Escape, Exodus
 


Play

MUD - A signaling system to show leader's 3 card suit count, holding  three insignificant cards.  MUD refers to the abbreviation Middle, Up, Down.  The leader begins with the Middle card, playing a higher (Up) card second and the lower (Down) card last.  MUD signals partner with a 3 card suit.

Also see Details on signaling and books on Leads
 

 

 

Bidding

Multi 2 Diamonds - An opening 2D bid, showing one of several types of hands (partnership agreements vary).

1.

Preemptive weak 2 level bid in an unspecified major

2.

"Mini-roman" 4=4=4=1 hand with 17-20 points

3.

Balanced 19-20 points

A response of 2N asks opener to further describe the hand, while a 3H/S bid is preemptive.  See Details
 

Go to Glossary Conventions N-Z
 

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