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Penalty Card - Referring to a defender's card inadvertently exposed, a faced where partner could have seen it through actions such as a dropped card or playing two cards to a trick.

Adjusted score - See Law 50
After declarer's acceptance of play other than penalty card - See Law 52
After defender's lead out of turn - See Law 56
After lead out of turn - See Law 53  56
Card retracted to correct a revoke - See Law 61
Declarer's acceptance of play other than penalty card - See Law 52
Declarer, inapplicability to - See Law 48
Disposition of - See Law 50
Dummy's hand, inapplicability to - See Law 48
Exposed card of defender - See Law 49  50
Failure to lead or play penalty card when required - See Law 52  61
Fifth card to a trick - See Law 45
Inability to lead or play as required - See Law 59
Lead out of turn - See Law 54  56
Major penalty card defined - See Law 50
Minor penalty card defined - See Law 50
Missing card - See Law 14
More than one penalty card - See Law 50  51
Obligation to follow suit - See Law 50  59
Procedure after illegal play - See Law 60
Rank of exposed card, significance - See Law 50
Retracted card as - See Law 52  54  56
Unauthorized information from - See Law 50

  Minor penalty card - for a single exposed non-honor card (smaller than 10) accidentally dropped or when two cards are played to a trick - Minor penalty card - See Law 50 :

1.

The exposed card does not have to be played at the first opportunity; another suit may be played by offender

2.

Any honor from that suit may be played, but the penalty card must be played if the offender does not chose an honor

3.

Offender's partner is not subject to lead penalties, provided unauthorized information was not passed   

  Major Penalty Card - To prematurely or deliberately face or otherwise expose an honor card to opponents (except by declarer).  If more than one card is exposed, each exposed honor becomes a major penalty card according to the Laws.  See Law 50 :

1.

The offender must play the exposed card at the first legal opportunity:

Declarer may accept the lead of another suit

Declarer may mandate lead of the exposed card

2.

The lead of the offender's partner is controlled by the declarer; if player leads prematurely, the card also becomes a major penalty card.  As long as offender's partner is on lead, the declarer may:

Require a suit lead of the exposed card (only once)

Prohibit the suit lead of the exposed card (as long as offender's partner is on lead)

Allow offender's partner to lead anything (continuing to maintain all rights associated with #2 as long as offender's partner remains on lead)

3.

If the offender inadvertently exposed 2+ penalty cards:

Declarer may designate which penalty card shall be played, but only for the first trick (other exposed cards are returned to the offender's hand)

Declarer may forbid the suit lead the any exposed card as long as defenders are on lead (all exposed cards in the forbid suit are returned to offender's hand)

See  Duplicate Decisions   Director Tech File

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