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Avoidance - A play which is intended to prevent or make it expensive for a "Dangerous Opponent"  from gaining the lead.  Example:

  A 9 8
K 9 8 7 6
K 8 5 4
J 3 2
K 10 7 6 5
Q 4 3
J 9

Contract: 3 Notrump

Declarer: South

Q 10 5 4
Q 9 4 3
10 2
Q 10 6
  K 7 6
A J 8
A J 5
A 7 3 2

West leads the H6, to East's HQ, won by South's HA.  Having 7 quick tricks, declarer must setup the Diamond suit to make game.  East is now the dangerous opponent if allowed to win a trick and return a Heart through South's HJ.  Thus, declarer can use dummy's 2 black suit entries to repeatedly finesse East in the Diamond suit.   South plays the C2 to dummy's CK to initiate finessing East.  Next declarer finesses dummy's  D9 ensuring West wins the trick by covering East's D10 with South's DJ, won by West's DQ.  Regardless of West's Heart play, declarer can now safely win 7 tricks to make the 3 Notrump contract (2 Spades, 4 Diamonds, 1 Club).  If East held and played the DQ, South must cover the trick with the DA so dangerous opponent East does not get on lead and play a Heart through South (knowing East-West will win an additional 4 tricks plus the Diamond loser).

See Avoidance Bridge Books

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