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Encyclopedia  of Bridge Terms
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


Duplicate     Bidding     General     Play     Conventions     Jargon     Rubber
 

 

Duplicate

199er Pairs - An ACBL tourney where all players must have fewer than 200 masterpoints.
 

Bidding

OBAR - Acronym for Opponent's Bid And Raise, often described in the context of a competitive auction.  See Responsive Double
 

Bidding
OBAR BIDS - Acronym for Opponent's Bid And Raise - Balance In Direct Seat.  See Conventions
 
Jargon

OBM - Abbreviation for Old Black Magic

Laws

OBOOT - Abbreviation for Opening Bid Out Of Turn

 


Rubber

Duplicate

Object of the Game -

Rubber Bridge

To efficiently bid and make the highest attainable score commensurate to a reasonable risk, and to drive opponents' bidding beyond these limits

Duplicate Bridge

To achieve a superior result to other contestants playing the same cards.

 

 

 

Laws

Obligation to Pass - The Laws requires the offender's partner to pass during their next turn or throughout the remainder of the auction in certain circumstance, technically known as an Enforced Pass:

Enforced Pass
Action in violation of obligation to pass - 37
Adjusted score for damage resulting from - 23
Affecting right to review auction - 20
After bid out of rotation - 31
After double out of rotation - 32
After exposed card - 24
After irregularity - 23
After pass out of rotation - 30
After redouble out of rotation - 32
Condonation of action in violation of obligation to pass - 35


Play

Obligatory Finesse - The declarer's second lead of a low card from a long suit, anticipating opponents must play their remaining high cards, allowing declarer to promote tricks in a long suit.  This strategy is most effective when the declarer holds a minority of the honors in a long suit.
 

Play

Obligatory Falsecard - A deliberately misleading play signal that is more likely to confuse the opponents regarding the side's holdings.  See Details


Play

Obvious Suit Preference Signal - In situations when normal signals have no apparent value,  clearly the defenders should use an alternative signaling method.  See Details.
 

Jargon

Ocho - The colloquial term referring to the 8 (eight-spot) card. See Card Names
 

 

General

Odd - Referring to the number of:

1.

Cards held in a suit

2.

Tricks won

3.

Level of bidding

Play

Odd Even Discard - See Conventions

 


General

Odds - See Probabilities

Card Distribution (remaining two hands)
Hand Distribution (suits within a hand)
High Card Point Count (HCPs in one hand)
Miscellaneous Probabilities (assorted interesting odds)
Number of Cards (card quantity in a suit)
Posteriori Probability (example when additional information is known)
Suit Combinations (best lead and plays)
Expected Controls (based on HCP)

Also see books on Probabilities
 

Rubber

Odd Trick - In Rubber Bridge, a trick won after winning 6 cumulative tricks (the book).

 

 

Play

Oden Rule - From the acronym ODd-evEN, an aid to assist declarer transport to the correct hand in situations such as repeated finesses or ruffs.  To end up in the master hand when the an even number of tricks must be taken, as 4 Spades (10 tricks), win the first trick in the non-master hand; to end up in the master hand when an odd number of tricks are required, as 3 Notrump (9 tricks), win the first trick in the master hand.  Summary:

Even Contract

Win first trick in non-master hand

Odd Contract

Win first trick in master hand

General

Off - Failing to make the desired contract.

Laws

Offender - The player not in compliance with the Laws (Law 12, 16, 72).

 

General

Offense -

1.

Attacking bids and playing strategies used against opponents

2.

An action in violation of the Laws

 

General

Official Encyclopedia Of Bridge - The ACBL's comprehensive book of facts about bridge and of bridge personalities since the inception of the game.  Fascinating bridge facts, hands, anecdotes, bridge terms, and more. Includes the lives and times of the world's best players, and the history of the game. Over 1,000 pages.  As of 2004, the Encyclopedia was in the 6th edition.
 


Duplicate

Official Score - The authorized score posted by the Director at a Duplicate Bridge tournament, factoring all players scores, ratings, and application of the Laws.

 


Bidding

Official System - A system of bidding in opposition to the then popular system created and successfully promoted by Ely Culbertson.  The Official System group included Milton Work, Sidney Lenz, Wilbur Whitehead, Winfield Liggett Jr., and Dudley Courtenay, with Advisors including
Shepard Barclay, Fred French, Henry Jaeger, Madeleine Kerwin, and  E.V. Shepard.  However, after Culbertson's 8,980 point win over 150 games against Sidney Lentz in the 1931 "Bridge Battle of the Century", the Official System gave way to Culberton's systems ("Blue Book", "Orange Book", etc).
 

General

Off Shape - A hand pattern not containing complementary distribution, typically one with shortages in an unbid suit.  See Offshape Double
 

General

Offside - An opponent card that is unfavorably located, such as a tenace holding destined to fail if a finesse is attempted.

Bidding

Offside Double - A penalty double, especially when declaring side stretched to bid game, indicating length in opponent's trump suit. 
 

Bidding

Laws

Offshape Double - A takeout double not conforming to normal length expected in unbid suits (3+ cards).  See Minimum Offshape Takeout Double

Jargon

Ogier - Jack of Spades , referring to the J, the loyal Knight from Charlemagne.  See History of Cards and Card Names
 

Bidding

Ogust - See Conventions

General

OKB - Abbreviation for OKBridge

General

OKBridge - See Bridge Service Providers

Duplicate

OLB - Abbreviation for On Line Bridge [to distinguish from Face-to-face bridge]
 

Laws

OLOOT - Abbreviation for Opening Lead Out Of Turn

 

Duplicate

Olympiad - A premiere World Team Bridge Championship focusing on team events (Team Olympiad), held every four years since 1960.  Pair events (Pair Olympiad) have also been held two years after each team event, beginning 1962, although certain team games are also held during the same period as pair events.
 

 


Duplicate

Omar Sharif World Individual Championship - An individual tournament held in 1990 at Atlantic City, New Jersey with a total purse of $200,000.   The event was the first time the ACBL sanctioned a tournament offering a cash prize.  Zia Mahmood won the $40,000 first place award and Fred Hamilton came in second.  Third place winner, P.O. Sundelin narrowly slipped out of first place when his partner Peter Pender pulled a wrong card in an easy game contract.  View the hand.

 

General

On -

1.

An attainable contract

2.

A card favorably placed in opponent's hand

3.

A partscore on the pair's side

Bidding

1 Club System (Strong/Forcing) - See Conventions.

Rubber

100 Honors - Referring to a 100 point bonus score awarded in Rubber Bridge when holding four of the five trump honors.
 

Rubber

150 Aces -  Referring to a 150 point bonus score awarded in Rubber Bridge when holding all four Aces in a Notrump contract.
 

Jargon

One Eye (Jack) - The colloquial term referring to the J (Jack of Hearts) and J (Jack of Spades).  See Card Names
 

Jargon One Eyed King - The colloquial term referring to the K (King of Diamonds).  See Card Names
 
Rubber

150 Honors - Referring to a 150 point bonus score awarded in Rubber Bridge when holding all five trump honors.
 

 

 

 

Bidding

 1 Notrump Opening - The requirement for a 1 Notrump opening bid includes a balanced hand with defined strength.

1.

A balanced hand is one that contains adequate controls in each suit.  Balanced distribution hands include: 4-3-3-3, 4-4-3-2, and 5-5-2-2 shape.  Semi-balanced hands include: 5-4-2-2 and 6-3-2-2 shape, particularly with controls in short suits.

2.

Opener's strength requirements vary based on partnership agreements.  While many partnerships open a strong 1 Notrump with 15-17 or 16-18 points, some open a weak Notrump with 11-14 or 13-15 points, with a few using a 10-12 point mini notrump range.  Still others dynamically raise their 1 Notrump opening requirement when vulnerable or based on the relative seat.

See Director Tech File (Opening with singleton and voids)
 

 

Bidding

1 Notrump Rebid - A 1 Notrump rebid typically limits the opener's hand to minimum strength, lacking a major suit fit with partner.  For instance, 1 Notrump opening bid playing 15-17 points, a 1 Notrump rebid usually shows 12-14 points (perhaps 15-16 with an unbalanced hand or a poor values).  However, if a pair plays 11-14 point opening values, their 1 Notrump rebid would show 15-17 points (alertable).
 

 

Bidding

1 Notrump Response - A 1 Notrump response to partner's opening bid generally denies a major suit and shows a minimum of 5-6 points, with an upper range defined by their system.  Popular systems such as Standard American use 6-10 points, while Forcing Notrump systems such as the 2/1 system use a 6-12 point range since responder's 2 level bid promises opening values.
 

Bidding

1/1 Response - A higher ranking bid of a new suit in response to partner's opening bid, generally showing 6+ points with an upper threshold determined by partnership conventions (strong/weak jump shifts).
 

Bidding

One Round Force - A call that compels partner not to pass, unless an opponent makes an interceding bid; the partner makes a best effort to further describe attributes of their hand.

Jargon

1 Spot - Referring to the Ace. See Example

Jargon

One Spot - A colloquial term referring to the Aces.  See Example

Jargon

One Suiter - A hand containing a long 6+ card suit and less than 4 cards in remaining suits.
 

Play

One Suit Squeeze - A play tactic containing elements of a squeeze and a throw-in.  See Example

General

Online Bridge - See Bridge Service Providers

Play

Onside - A tenace holding with opponent's intermediate card to the right of the split honors, providing a finesse opportunity.  See Example

Laws

OOT - Abbreviation for Out Of Turn

 


General

 

Duplicate

Open -

Bid

The first player to begin bidding during the auction

Lead

The initial card led during play, held by the declarer's Left Hand Opponent.

Room

The room in a championship event where players may kibitz players (as opposed to the closed room)

Event

A pair or team event, without restrictions on age, sex, or masterpoints of who can participate


General

Opener - The first player to make a bid in the auction.  Technically, the four positions at the table are: opener - overcaller - responder - advancer. See Example

Play



Laws

Opening Lead - Choosing the best opening lead requires careful consideration of bidding, holdings, and other relevant factors.  See Details

Face down - See Law 41
Face up - See Law 41
Misinformation affecting - See Law 47
Premature - See Law 24
Retraction of - See Law 47
Right to make - See Law 41

 


Laws

Opening Lead Out Of Turn - When an opening lead is faced out of turn, and offender's partner leads face down, the Director requires the face down lead to be retracted. 

Out of turn - See Law 47  48  53  54
Out of turn, accepted - See Law 53

Bidding
Opening Preempts - See Conventions

General

Opponents - The adverse players of the other partnership, whether the pair seated opposite the players at the table, or oriented in the same position at another table in a team event.

General

Opponents' Suit - The suit bid or inferred by opponents' calls, leads, or play, especially when Opponents' Bid And Raise (OBAR) a suit.


General

Opposition - The adverse players of the other partnership, whether the pair seated opposite the players at the table, or oriented in the same position at another table in a team event.


Play

Optimum Strategy - The overcall game plan by defender or declarer to maximize the side's assets, producing the most tricks attainable based on an acceptable risk.  Factors considered in determining the optimum strategy include calls, bidding inferences, leads and signals, cards played, player strengths, tentative score, and other factors.  See Environmental Factors.

Bidding

Optional Double - See Conventions

General

Option - A player opportunity to choose one of several actions (bids or plays), depending on the current circumstances.

 

Laws

Options Of Player After Irregularity -

Consultation with partner prohibited - See Law 10
Discretion of director - See Law 12
Explanation by director - See Law 9  10  11

Bidding

Orange Club - A strong Club system created by Bobby Wolff and James Jacoby in the 1970's, and later adopted by Bobby Wolff and Bob Hamman. 

General

Original Bid - The opening bid in the auction.

Laws

Os - Abbreviation for Offenders

Laws

OS - Abbreviation for Offending Side

General

OTOH - Abbreviation for On The Other Hand

Bidding

 
Other Conventional Calls - See Conventions
General

Our Contract/Hand - To indicate the final contract belongs with the pair's side.


 


General
 

Laws
 

Out -

1.

A player not currently playing at the table, such as an extra player in a Rubber Bridge game

2.

A pair or team eliminated or removed from an event

3.

A player making a call or play not according to the Laws 30, 31, 32

4.

A player void in the suit played

 

 


Jargon

Out of the Blue - A surprising, unanticipated call that may or may not follow partnership agreements.  Example:

1N - 2H;
2S - 3N;
4H - ?

 

2H = Jacoby Transfer to Spades

Does opener's "Out of the Blue" 4H bid show a long Heart suit not disclosed by 1N Opener, a 4S misbid, a cuebid, or something else?

Also see Conventions: Advance Cuebid

Laws

Out of Turn - A  call or play not accordance with Law 57.

Jargon

Out on a Limb - Referring to a player's seemingly risky call or play.

 

 

Play

Over - Typically referenced when the Right Hand Opponent holds losing honors behind (over) the preceding player.  Here South is over East's tenaces.

         x x x

x x x                K J x

         A Q 10 x

Bidding
Over Opponent's Takeout Double - See Conventions
Jargon

Overbid - To bid beyond the level a partnership can reasonably attain, potentially in a competitive auction or misguided slam auction.


Jargon

Overbidder - A player who habitually bids beyond the level of the partnership's assets (strength, length, risk/reward, vulnerability).  See Distribution Points and Environmental Factors.

Jargon

Overboard - See Overbid

Bidding

Overcall - A players bid at a level higher than that of an opponent who has opened the bidding. See Convention Card Instructions

Also see Books on Overcalls


General

Overcaller - The opponent making a bid after the opener.  Technically, the four positions at the table are: opener - overcaller - responder - advancer.  See Example

Bidding

Overcall in Opponent's Major Suit - See Michaels Cuebid, Cuebid, Sandwich Overcall

Play

Overruff - To play a higher trump than an opponent, who are both out of the suit lead.

Play

Overtake - To play a higher ranking card than partner's winning card, perhaps to develop additional tricks by playing through opponent's strength, providing ruffing opportunity to partner, unblocking, or similar tactics.

Play

Overtaking Squeeze -  A variation of the Triple Squeeze, where Left Hand Opponent's discard determines which suit/s to pitch or play from the other hand.  See Example

General

Overtrick - A trick or tricks more than the contract requirement.

General

Overtrump - To play a higher trump than an opponent, who are both out of the suit lead.

Bidding

OWES  - The acronym Odd Weak, Even Stronger, referring to the strategy of relaxing preemptive bid requirements in the odd (first and third) seat while playing sounder preempts in even (second and fourth) seats.

 

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